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PZL M28

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PZL_M-28

PZL M28
Skytruck / Bryza
Polish Navy PZL M28B Bryza 1R
Role STOL transport and patrol aircraft
Manufacturer PZL Mielec
Designed by Antonov/PZL Mielec
First flight 22 July 1984 (PZL An-28)
24 July 1993 (PZL M28 Skytruck)
Primary users Polish Air Force
Polish Navy
Vietnamese Air Force
Royal Nepalese Army Air Service
Number built 176+ (including PZL An-28)
Developed from Antonov An-28

The PZL M28 Skytruck is a Polish STOL light cargo and passenger plane, produced by PZL Mielec, as a development of licence-built Antonov An-28. Early licence-built planes were designated PZL An-28. The maritime patrol and reconnaissance variants are named PZL M28B Bryza ("sea breeze").

Design and development

The Antonov An-28 was the winner of a competition against the Beriev Be-30 for a new light passenger and utility transport for Aeroflot's short haul routes, conceived to replace highly successful An-2 biplane. The An-28 is substantially derived from the earlier An-14. Commonality with the An-14 includes the high wing layout, twin fins and rudders, but it differs in having a new and far larger fuselage, plus turboprop engines. The original powerplant was the TVD-850, but production versions are powered by the more powerful TVD-10B, with three-blade propellers.

The An-28 made its first flight as the An-14M in September 1969 in the Ukraine. A subsequent preproduction aircraft first flew in April 1975. Production of the An-28 was then transferred to Poland's PZL Mielec in 1978, although it was not until July 22, 1984 that the first Polish-built production aircraft flew. The An-28's Soviet type certificate was awarded in April 1986.

PZL Mielec has become the sole source for production An-28s. Basic variant, not differing from the Soviet one, was designated PZL An-28 and powered with PZL-10S (licence-built TVD-10B) engines. They were built mostly for the USSR, until it broke up. The plane was next developed by the PZL Mielec into a westernised version powered by 820kW (1100shp) Pratt & Whitney PT6A-65B turboprops with five-blade Hartzell propellers, plus some western (BendixKing) avionics (a distinguishing feature are exhaust pipes, sticking out on sides of engine nacelles). Designated the PZL M28 Skytruck, first flight was on 24 July 1993 and it is in limited production, mostly for export (39 produced by 2006). The type received Polish certification in March 1996, and US FAR Part 23 certificate on 19 March 2004.

Apart from the Skytruck, PZL Mielec developed a family of militarized light transport and maritime reconnaissance planes for the Polish Air Force and Polish Navy in the 1990s, with original PZL-10S engines, named PZL M28B in the Air Force and Bryza in the Navy. From 2000, newly produced M28Bs started to be equipped with five-blade propellers as well.

Description


PZL M28 Skytruck
PZL M28 Skytruck

It is a twin-engined high-wing strutted monoplane of all-metal structure, with twin vertical fins and a robust tricycle non-retractable landing gear, featuring a steerable nose wheel to provide for operation from short, unprepared runways where hot or high altitude conditions may exist. The M28 is best suited for passenger and/or cargo transportation.

  • Short takeoff & landing (STOL) capability
  • Perfect flight handling at low airspeeds
  • High useful load, mission versatility
  • Unpaved airstrip operating capability
  • Easy access through rear cargo door, fitted with a hoist for cargo loading and relocation inside the cabin
  • High-wing arrangement for protection of engines and propellers against damage when operating from unpaved airstrips
  • Easy and quick conversion of the cabin interior configuration
  • Low operating cost
  • PT6 engines of inverted configuration for efficient protection against foreign object ingression owing to inertial separators installed inside air inlet ducts.

While of conventional design, one notable feature of the An-28 is that it will not stall, due to its automatic slats. An engine failure that would usually induce the wing to drop 30° is combated by an automatic spoiler forward of the aileron that opens on the opposite wing, restricting wing drop to 12° in five seconds.

Operational history

176 An-28s and M28s in all variants were built in Poland by 2006. Most numerous users are former Soviet civil aviation and the Polish Air Force and Navy (about 25 as of 2006), less numerous are used by the Polish civil aviation and in the USA, Nepal, Colombia, Venezuela, Vietnam and Indonesia.

On 12 February 2009, AirForceTimes reported that the U.S Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) would receive 10 PZL M28 Skytrucks in June of 2009.

Variants


PZL M28B Bryza 1R in a commemorative livery
PZL M28B Bryza 1R in a commemorative livery

M28 Bryza at Okęcie airfield
M28 Bryza at Okęcie airfield

Airframe Variants

PZL An-28
Original variant build under Antonov licence, with PZL-10S (licence TV-10B) engines.
PZL M28 Skytruck
Development variant with redesigned hull and wings, new Pratt & Whitney Canada engines, new (western) avionics, 5-blade rotors, and some other minor changes.
PZL M28B Bryza
Militarized variants used by Polish Air Force and Polish Navy, similar to Skytruck, but with PZL-10S engines.
PZL M28+ Skytruck Plus
Prototype of new lengthened variant with more internal space, not in production.

Variants in use by Polish Military

PZL An-28TD
Basic transport variant. Used mainly for transport and paratroop training (2 built).
PZL M28B
Several similar improved transport variants featuring avionics and airframe upgrades: Bryza 1TD (2 built), M28B (3 built), M28B Salon (1 built), M28B TDII, TDIII and TDIV (2 built of each).
PZL M28B Bryza 1R
Maritime patrol and reconnaissance variant (equipped with: 360° Search and Surveillance Radar ASR-400, Link-11 datalink). Used mainly for sea border patrolling, search and rescue operations and protection of the national economical sea zone (7 built).
PZL M28B Bryza 1E
Maritime ecological reconnaissance and patrol variant (2 built).
PZL M28B Bryza 1RM bis
Maritime patrol and reconnaissance variant with submarine detection capability, of 2004 (equipped with: 360° Search and Surveillance Radar ARS-800-2, ejection of single-use hydro-acoustic sonobuoys, Thermal Imaging System (FLIR), magnetic anomaly detector, Link-11 datalink). Used mainly for sea border patrolling, search and rescue operations and protection of the national economical sea zone (1 built as of 2006).
PZL M28 05 Skytruck
Maritime patrol and SAR variant for the Polish Border Guard, of 2006 (equipped with Search and Surveillance Radar ARS-400M and FLIR system) (1 built as of 2006).

Operators

 Indonesia
 Nepal
 Poland
 United States
 Venezuela
 Vietnam

Specifications (PZL M28)

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

External links

Webs

Films




Text from Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply.


Published - July 2009














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