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Visual flight rules

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of regulations which allow a pilot to operate an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going. Specifically, the weather must be better than Basic VFR Weather Minimums, as specified in the FAA rules.If the weather is worse than VFR minimums, pilots are required to use Instrument Flight Rules.

VFR rules require a pilot to be able to see outside the cockpit, to control the aircraft's attitude, navigate, and avoid obstacles and other aircraft. A VFR flight is "conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules".

To avoid collisions, the VFR pilot is expected to "see and avoid" obstacles and other aircraft. Pilots flying under VFR assume responsibility for their separation from all other aircraft and are generally not assigned routes or altitudes by air traffic control. Near busier airports, and while operating within certain types of airspace, VFR aircraft are required to have a transponder to help identify the aircraft on radar. Governing agencies establish specific requirements for VFR flight, including minimum visibility, and distance from clouds, to ensure that aircraft operating under VFR are visible from enough distance to ensure safety.

From a regulatory perspective, airspace is categorized as controlled and uncontrolled. In controlled airspace known as class B, air traffic control (ATC) will separate VFR aircraft from all other aircraft. In most other types of controlled airspace, ATC is only required to maintain separation to aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR), but workload permitting will assist all aircraft. In the United States, a pilot operating VFR outside of class B airspace can request "VFR flight following" from air traffic control (ATC). This service is provided by ATC if workload permits it, but is an advisory service only. The responsibility for maintaining separation with other aircraft and proper navigation still remains with the pilot.

Meteorological conditions that meet the minimum requirements for VFR flight are termed visual meteorological conditions (VMC). If they are not met, the conditions are considered instrument meteorological conditions(IMC), and a flight may only operate under IFR.

IFR operations have specific training, recency of experience, equipment, and inspection requirements for both the pilot and aircraft, and an IFR flight plan, must usually be filed in advance. For efficiency of operations, some ATC operations will routinely provide "pop-up" IFR clearances for aircraft operating VFR, but that are arriving at an airport that does not meet VMC requirements. For example, in the United States, at least California's Oakland (KOAK), Monterey (KMRY) and Santa Ana (KSNA) airports do so routinely when a low coastal overcast forces instrument approaches while essentially the entire state of California is basking in sunshine.

In the United States, VFR pilots also have an option for requesting Special VFR when meteorological conditions at an airport are below normal VMC minimums, but above Special VFR requirements. Special VFR is only intended to enable takeoffs and landings from airports that are near to VMC conditions, and may only be performed during daytime hours if a pilot does not possess an instrument rating.

VFR flight is not allowed in airspace known as class A, regardless of the meteorological conditions. In the United States, class A airspace begins at 18,000 feet msl, and extends to an altitude of 60,000 feet msl.

Pilot certifications

In the United States and Canada, any certificated pilot who meets specific recency of experience criteria, may operate an airworthy aircraft under VFR.

Controlled visual flight rules

CVFR flight is used in locations where aviation authorities have determined that VFR flight should be allowed, but that ATC separation minimal and guidance are necessary. In this respect, CVFR is similar to Instrument flight rules (IFR) in that ATC will give pilots headings and altitudes at which to fly, and will provide separation and conflict resolution. However, pilots and aircraft do not need to be IFR rated to fly in CVFR areas, which is highly advantageous. An example of airspace where CVFR is common would be Canadian Class B airspace.

Section of CVFR flight routes map of Tel Aviv (Israel) area. Flight altitude in each direction is notated in yellow arrow-box. Compulsory reporting points are marked with triangles and airports are marked by yellow circles.

Section of CVFR flight routes map of Tel Aviv (Israel) area. Flight altitude in each direction is notated in yellow arrow-box. Compulsory reporting points are marked with triangles and airports are marked by yellow circles.

The CVFR concept is used in Canada and certain European countries, but not in the U.S., where the Private Pilot certificate itself authorizes the pilot to accept clearances under VFR.

In the Palestinian territory and Israel, for example, VFR does not exist. All visual flights must be performed under CVFR rules.

See also

Text from Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply.

Published in July 2009.

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