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The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer, Fokker.
Design and development
Announced by Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker, MBB of Germany, Fokker-VFW (also of Germany), and Short Brothers of the United Kingdom. There was also government money invested in the project, with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.
Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km (1,025 mi), the plane was later designed to have 60-65 seats. On the design sheet, the F28 was originally to mount Bristol Siddeley BS.75 turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey Junior", a simplified version of the Rolls-Royce Spey.
The F28 was similar in design to the BAC 1-11 and DC-9, as it had a T-tail and the engines at the rear of the fuselage. The aircraft had, although slightly, wings with crescent angle of sweep with ailerons at the tip, simple flaps and five sections liftdumper only operated after landing to dump the lift. The leading edge was fixed and its anti iced by bleedair from the engines. The tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake. It had a retractable tricycle landing gear.
In terms of responsibility for production, Fokker designed and built the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing; MBB/Fokker-VFW constructed the forward fuselage, rear fuselage and tail assembly; and Shorts designed and built the outer wings.
Final assembly of the Fokker F28 was at Schiphol Airport in Netherlands.
The F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on May 9, 1967 (exactly one month later than the famous Boeing 737). German certification was achieved on February 24, 1969. The first order was from German airline LTU, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathens on March 28, 1969 who operated five F28s.
The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000, which could seat up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000. The prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, and first flew on April 28, 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified F28-2000 and F28-1000 respectively, with the inclusion of slats, with a larger wingspan, more powerful and silent engines as the main features. The F28-6000 and F28-5000 were not a commercial success; only two F28-6000 and no F28-5000 were built. After being used by Fokker for a time the F28-6000 were sold to Air Mauritanie, but not before they were converted to F28-2000s.
The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on October 20, 1976 with the one of the world's largest Fokker operators, Linjeflyg. This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, and had an increased seating capacity (up to 85 passengers), a larger wingspan with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new interior. The F28-3000, the runner-up for the F28-1000, featured the same improvements as the F28-4000.
F28's of Ansett Groups MMA/Airlines of Western Australia flew the longest non-stop F28 route in the world, from Perth to Kununurra, in Western Australia - a distance of about 2,240 km (1,392 mi). MMA'a F28's also had the highest utilisation rates at the time.
By the time production ended in 1987, 241 airframes had been built.
- F.28 Mk 1000 - First variant derived from the third prototype, with a maximum capacity of 65 passengers in a high-density configuration. The Mk 1000 had a length of 27.40 m. It was powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.183-2 Mk.555-15 each with 43.8 kN (9,850 lbf) of thrust. Maximum weight at take-off was 28,123 kg (62,001 lb).
- F.28 Mk 1000C - All-cargo, passenger/cargo version derived from Mk 1000 with a port-side cargo door.
- F.28 Mk 2000 - It first flew on April 28, 1971, being certified on August 30, 1972. This variant had a fuselage 2.21 m longer than the Mk 1000, with a passenger capacity of 79 in high-density single-class configuration. It began revenue service with Nigeria Airways in October 1972. Ten were built.
Dash-3000 variant in VIP configuration from the Colombian Air Force|
- F.28 Mk 3000 - With the shorter fuselage of Mk 1000, it was one of the more successful variants, with greater structural strength and increased fuel capacity. It began revenue service with Garuda Airlines.
- F.28 Mk 4000 - The first prototype appeared on October 20, 1976 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000 with a passenger capacity of 85. Wingspan was increased by 1.57 m and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 "Spey" Mk555-15P of 44 kN (9,901 lbf) thrust. It began service with Linjeflyg (Sweden) at the end of 1976.
- F.28 Mk 5000 - Derived from the Mk 6000, was to combine the shorter fuselage of the Mk 3000 and an increased wingspan. Slats were to be added to the wings and more powerful Rolls-Royce "Spey" Mk555-15H engines were to be used. Although expected to be an excellent plane to operate in short runways due to its superior power, it was finally not built and the project was abandoned.
- F.28 Mk 6000 - It first flew on September 27, 1973 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000/4000 with an increased wingspan. It was certified in October 1975.
- F.28 Mk 6600 - Proposed version. Not built.
Accidents and incidents
According to , the Fokker F28 has an average fatal incident rate of 1.67 per million flights, the third worst safety record of any commercial airliner :
- Braathens Flight 239 - December 23, 1972, (Asker, suburb to Oslo, Norway): 40 fatalities. First fatal crash with a Fokker Fellowship.
- Turkish Airlines - January 26, 1974, (Izmir,Turkey): 66 fatalities. the aircraft crashed down 100m away from the airfield during takeoff.
- Turkish Airlines - January 30, 1975, (Marmara sea,near to Istanbul,Turkey): 41 fatalities. During landing felt down to Marmara Sea.
- Turkish Airlines - December 23, 1979, (Ankara,Turkey): 39 fatalities. Because of turbulence.
- NLM Cityhopper Flight 431 - October 6, 1981 (Moerdijk, North Brabant, Netherlands): 17 fatalities, the aircraft flew into a tornado which broke off one of the wings which led to a mid-air break up.
- Garuda Indonesia Domestic Flight - March 20, 1982, runway overrun at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather, 27 fatalities.
- Air Ontario Flight 1363 - March 10, 1989 (Dryden, Ontario, Canada): 24 fatalities.
- USAir Flight 405 - March 22, 1992 (Queens, New York, United States): 27 fatalities.
- Biman Bangladesh Flight 609 - December 22, 1997 (Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, CFIT onto a rice field approx 1 mile from runway. Aviation-Safety.net report
- TANS Peru Flight 222 - January 9, 2003: None of the 46 passengers aboard the Fokker F-28 survived after the aircraft hit a mountain near Chachapoyas, Peru
- Biman Bangladesh parked at Zia International Airport - April 22, 2003 Aviation-Safety.net report
- Biman Bangladesh Flight 601 - October 8, 2004 (Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, overran runway on landing. Pictures at AirDisaster.com - Aviation-Safety.net report
- Icaro Air Flight 504 crashed during take off at Quito's Mariscal Sucre Airport No deaths, or injuries occurred.
More complete list of incidents at AirDisaster.com
In August 2006 a total of 92 Fokker F28 aircraft (all variants) remained in airline service. Major operators included: Garuda Indonesia (62 in total), Ansett Group Australia(more than 15),AirQuarius Aviation (10), Libyan Arab Airlines (5), Gatari Air Service (5), Icaro Air (5) and Merpati Nusantara Airlines (23). Some 22 airlines operated smaller numbers of the type.
||89 ft 11 in (27.4 m)
||97 ft 2 in (29.6 m)
||89 ft 11 in (27.40 m (89.9 ft) 2 in (29.61 m)
||97 ft 2 in (29.6 m)
||77 ft 4 in (23.6 m)
||82 ft 3 in (25.1 m)
||822.4 sq ft (76.40 m2)
||850 sq ft (78.97 m2)
|Max takeoff weight:
||65,000 lb (29,000 kg)
||73,000 lb (33,000 kg)
|Max cruising speed:
||528 mph (849 km/h)
||523 mph (843 km/h)
||1,350 km (840 mi) (2,743 km)
||1,180 mi (1,900 km)
||35,000 ft (11,000 m)
||2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 "Spey" Mk555-15
||2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 "Spey" Mk555-15P turbofan engines
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Published - July 2009