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List of Solar System probes

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Solar_System_probes

This is a list of all space probes that have left Earth orbit or were launched with that intention but failed, organised by their planned destination. This includes planetary probes, lunar probes, solar probes and probes to asteroids and comets. Flybys, including terrestrial, (such as gravity assists) that were incidental to the main purpose of the mission are also listed. Confirmed future probes are included, but missions that are still at the concept stage, or which never progressed beyond the concept stage, are not.

Key

Colour key:

  • means "tentatively identified", as classified by NASA [1]. These are Cold War-era Soviet missions, mostly failures, about which few or no details have been officially released. The information given may be speculative.
  • Date is the date of:
  • closest encounter (flybys)
  • impact (impactors)
  • orbital insertion to end of mission, whether planned or premature (orbiters)
  • landing to end of mission, whether planned or premature (landers)
  • launch (missions that never got underway due to failure at or soon after launch)
In cases which do not fit any of the above, the event to which the date refers is stated. Note that as a result of this scheme missions are not always listed in order of launch.
  • Under Status:
  • success means that the mission fulfilled its primary goals. In the case of flybys (such as gravity assists) that are incidental to the main mission, "success" indicates the successful completion of the flyby, not necessarily that of the main mission.
  • partial success means that the mission fulfilled some but not all of its primary goals
  • failure means that the mission did not fulfil any of its primary goals
Other entries are self-explanatory.

Solar probes

These are solar observation probes designed to operate in heliocentric orbit or at one of the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points. The list excludes Earth-orbiting solar observatories.

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 5 NASA/
DOD
March–April 1960 orbiter success measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region [1]
Pioneer 6 NASA December 1965 – still contactable in 2000 orbiter success network of solar-orbiting "space weather" monitors, observing solar wind, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields [2]
Pioneer 7 NASA August 1966 – still contactable in 1995 orbiter success [3]
Pioneer 8 NASA December 1967 – still contactable in 2001 orbiter success [4]
Pioneer 9 NASA November 1968 – May 1983 orbiter success [5]
Pioneer-E NASA 27 August 1969 orbiter failure intended as part of the Pioneer 6–9 network; failed to reach orbit [6]
Helios A NASA/
BWF
November 1974 – 1982 orbiter success observations of solar wind, magnetic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust between Earth and Sun [7]
Helios B NASA/
BWF
January 1976 – 1985? orbiter success [8]
ISEE-3 NASA 1978–1982 orbiter success observed solar phenomena in conjunction with earth-orbiting ISEE-1 and ISEE-2; later renamed International Cometary Explorer (ICE) and directed to Comet Giacobini-Zinner [9]
Ulysses
(first pass)
ESA/
NASA
1994 orbiter success south polar observations [10]
1995 north polar observations
WIND NASA November 1994 — still returning data (as of Oct 2008) orbiter success solar wind measurements [11]
SOHO ESA/
NASA
May 1996 – orbiter success investigation of Sun's core, corona, and solar wind; comet discoveries [12]
ACE NASA August 1997 – orbiter success solar wind observations [13]
Ulysses
(second pass)
ESA/
NASA
2000 orbiter success south polar observations [10]
2001 north polar observations
Genesis NASA 2001–2004 orbiter/
sample return
partial success solar wind sample return; crash landed on return to Earth, some samples salvaged [14]
STEREO A NASA December 2006 – planned 2 year mission orbiter operational stereoscopic imaging of coronal mass ejections and other solar phenomena [15]
STEREO B NASA December 2006 – planned 2 year mission orbiter operational [16]
Ulysses
(third pass)
ESA/
NASA
2007 orbiter success south polar observations [10]
2008 partial success north polar observations; some data returned despite failing power and reduced transmission capacity
Solar Sentinels NASA 2015 multi-probe orbiter planned six probes watching the sun [17]
Solar Orbiter ESA 2015 orbiter planned close-range solar observations [18]
Solar Probe NASA 2015 orbiter under study close-range coronal observations [19]

Mercury probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 10 NASA 29 March 1974 flyby success minimum distance 704 km [20]
21 September 1974 48,069 km
16 March 1975 327 km
MESSENGER NASA 14 January 2008 flyby success minimum distance 200 km [2]
6 October 2008 minimum distance 200 km
30 September 2009 flyby en route planned minimum distance 200 km
18 March 2011 –
March, 2012
orbiter
BepiColombo ESA/
JAXA
2019 [3]
   Mercury
Planetary Orbiter
ESA orbiter under construction
Mercury Magnetospheric
Orbiter
JAXA orbiter under construction

Venus probes

1961–1965

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Sputnik 7 (USSR) 4 February 1961 lander failure failed to escape from Earth orbit [4]
Venera 1 (USSR) 19 May 1961 –
20 May 1961
flyby failure contact lost 7 days after launch; first spacecraft to fly by another planet [5]
Mariner 1 NASA 22 July 1962 flyby failure guidance failure shortly after launch [6]
Sputnik 19 (USSR) 25 August 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit [7]
Sputnik 20 (USSR) 1 September 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit [8]
Sputnik 21 (USSR) 12 September 1962 flyby failure third stage exploded [9]
Mariner 2 NASA 14 December 1962 flyby success first successful Venus flyby; minimum distance 34,773 km [10]
Cosmos 21 (USSR) 11 November 1963 flyby? failure failed to escape Earth orbit [11]
Venera 1964A (USSR) 19 February 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [12]
Venera 1964B (USSR) 1 March 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [13]
Cosmos 27 (USSR) 27 March 1964 flyby failure failed to escape Earth orbit [14]
Zond 1 (USSR) 1964 flyby and possible lander failure contact lost en route [15]
Cosmos 96 (USSR) 23 November 1965 lander failure exploded? [16]
Venera 1965A (USSR) 26 November 1965 flyby failure launch vehicle failure? [17]

1966–1970

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 2 (USSR) 27 February 1966 flyby failure ceased to operate en route [18]
Venera 3 (USSR) 1 March 1966 lander failure contact lost before arrival; first spacecraft to impact on the surface of another planet [19]
Cosmos 167 (USSR) 17 June 1967 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit [20]
Venera 4 (USSR) 18 October 1967 atmospheric probe success continued to transmit to an altitude of 25 km [21]
Mariner 5 NASA 19 October 1967 flyby success minimum distance 5,000 km [22]
Venera 5 (USSR) 16 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 53 minutes, to an altitude of about 26 km [23]
Venera 6 (USSR) 17 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 51 minutes, to an altitude of perhaps 10–12 km [24]
Cosmos 359 (USSR) 22 August 1970 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit [25]
Venera 7 (USSR) 15 December 1970 lander success first successful landing on another planet; signals returned from surface for 23 minutes [26]

1971–1975

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cosmos 482 (USSR) 31 March 1972 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit [27]
Venera 8 (USSR) 22 July 1972 lander success signals returned from surface for 50 minutes [28]
Mariner 10 NASA 5 February 1974 flyby success minimum distance 5768 km, en route to Mercury; first use of gravity assist by an interplanetary spacecraft [20]
Venera 9 (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies [29]
22 October 1975 lander success first images from the surface; operated on surface for 53 minutes [30]
Venera 10 (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies [31]
23 October 1975 lander success transmitted from surface for 65 minutes [32]

1978

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer Venus Orbiter NASA 4 December 1978 –
1992
orbiter success atmospheric and magnetic studies [33]
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe NASA 9 December 1978
bus probe transporter success deployed four atmospheric probes, then burnt up in Venusian atmosphere, continuing to transmit to 110 km altitude [34]
large probe atmospheric probe success [35]
north probe atmospheric probe success [36]
day probe atmospheric probe success survived impact and continued to transmit from surface for over an hour [37]
night probe atmospheric probe success [38]
Venera 12 SAS
flight platform 21 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay [39]
descent craft 21 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 110 minutes; failure of some instruments [40]
Venera 11 SAS identical to Venera 12
   flight platform 25 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay [41]
descent craft 25 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 95 minutes; failure of some instruments [42]

1982–1994

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 13 SAS
   bus 1 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay [43]
descent craft 1 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 127 minutes [44]
Venera 14 SAS identical to Venera 13
bus 5 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay [45]
descent craft 5 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 57 minutes [46]
Venera 15 SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping [47]
Venera 16 SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping; identical to Venera 15 [48]
Vega 1 SAS 11 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet [49]
lander failure instruments deployed prematurely [50]
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours [51]
Vega 2 SAS 15 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet [52]
lander success transmitted from surface for 56 minutes [53]
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours [54]
Galileo NASA 10 February 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 16,000 km [55]
Magellan NASA 10 August 1990 –
12 October 1994
orbiter success global radar mapping [56]

1998–present

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cassini NASA/
ESA/
ASI
26 April 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn [57]
24 June 1999
Venus Express ESA 11 April 2006 – orbiter success atmospheric studies; planetary imaging; magnetic observations [58]
MESSENGER NASA 24 October 2006 flyby success gravity assist only; minimum distance 2990 km [59]
6 June 2007 success minimum distance 300 km; en route to Mercury

Future

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
PLANET-C JAXA 2010 orbiter planned [60]
Venera-D RFSA 2013 orbiter planned [61]
Venus In-Situ Explorer NASA 2013 in-situ explorer planned [62]
Venus Surface Explorer NASA 2020 in-situ explorer planned [63]

Earth flybys

These are probes that incidentally performed Earth flybys during missions to other bodies, often as part of gravity-assist orbital manoeuvres. Earth-orbiting craft are not listed.

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Giotto
(first pass)
ESA 2 July 1990 flyby success first Earth flyby, en route to Comet Grigg-Skjellerup [64]
Galileo
(first pass)
NASA 8 October 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 960 km [65]
Sakigake
(first pass)
ISAS 8 January 1992 flyby previously visited Halley's comet [66]
Suisei ISAS 20 August 1992 flyby failure previously visited Halley's comet; hydrazine depleted, further planned comet flybys abandoned [67]
Galileo
(second pass)
NASA 8 December 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 305 km [68]
Sakigake
(second and third passes)
ISAS 14 June 1993 flyby [69]
28 October 1994 flyby out of fuel; telemetry contact lost November 1995
NEAR Shoemaker NASA 23 January 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Eros; closest approach 540 km [70]
Nozomi
(first pass)
ISAS 20 December 1998 flyby partial success gravity assist on planned mission to Mars; valve malfunction during flyby required extra burn, which later forced alternate trajectory plan [71]
Giotto
(second pass)
ESA 1 July 1999 flyby n/a already defunct [72]
Cassini NASA/
ESA/
ASI
August, 1999 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn [73]
Stardust
(first pass)
NASA 15 January 2001 flyby success gravity assist en route to comet 81P/Wild [74]
Nozomi
(second pass)
ISAS December, 2002 flyby success gravity assist en route to Mars [75]
Nozomi
(third pass)
ISAS 19 June 2003 flyby success gravity assist en route to Mars [76]
Hayabusa ISAS 19 May 2004 flyby success en route to Itokawa [77]
Rosetta
(first pass)
ESA 4 March 2005 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters [78]
MESSENGER NASA 2 August 2005 flyby success en route to Venus and Mercury [79]
Stardust
(second pass)
NASA 15 January 2006 flyby success drop-off of sample return capsule [80]
Rosetta
(second pass)
ESA 13 November 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) NASA 31 December 2007 flyby success previously visited Comet 9P/Tempel; gravity assist en route to encounter with Comet 103P/Hartley [81]
Stardust
(third pass)
NASA 14 January 2009 flyby en route mission extension to Comet 9P/Tempel [82]
Rosetta
(third pass)
ESA 13 November 2009 flyby en route gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters

Lunar probes

The list does not include the manned Apollo missions.

1958

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 0 DOD 17 August 1958 orbiter failure first attempted launch beyond Earth orbit; launch vehicle failure; maximum altitude 16 km [83]
Luna 1958A USSR 23 September 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [84]
Pioneer 1 NASA/
DOD
11 October 1958 orbiter failure second stage premature shutdown; maximum altitude 113,800 km; some data returned [85]
Luna 1958B USSR 12 October 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [86]
Pioneer 2 NASA/
STL
8 November 1958 orbiter failure third stage failure; maximum altitude 1,550 km; some data returned [87]
Luna 1958C USSR 4 December 1958 impactor failure launch vehicle failure [88]
Pioneer 3 NASA/
DOD
6 December 1958 flyby failure fuel depletion; maximum altitude 102,360 km; some data returned [89]

1959

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 1 USSR 4 January 1959 flyby partial success first spacecraft in the vicinity of the Moon (flew within 5,995 km, but probably an intended impactor) [90]
Luna 1959A USSR 18 June 1959 impactor failure failed to reach Earth orbit [91]
Pioneer 4 NASA/
DOD
4 March 1959 flyby partial success achieved distant flyby; first US probe to enter solar orbit [92]
Luna 2 USSR 14 September 1959 impactor success first impact on Moon [93]
Pioneer P-1 NASA 24 September 1959? orbiter? failure designation sometimes given to a failed launch or launchpad explosion during testing; conflicting information between sources
Luna 3 USSR 6 October 1959 flyby success first images from the lunar farside [94]
Pioneer P-3 NASA 26 November 1959 orbiter failure disintegrated shortly after launch [95]

1960

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 1960A USSR 15 April 1960 flyby failure failed to attain correct trajectory [96]
Luna 1960B USSR 16 April 1960 flyby failure launch vehicle failure [97]
Pioneer P-30 NASA 25 September 1960 orbiter failure second stage failure; failed to reach Earth orbit [98]
Pioneer P-31 NASA 15 December 1960 orbiter failure first stage failure [99]

1962–1963

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ranger 3 NASA 28 January 1962 impactor failure missed target [100]
Ranger 4 NASA 26 April 1962 impactor failure hit the lunar farside; no data returned [101]
Ranger 5 NASA 21 October 1962 impactor failure power failure, missed target [102]
Sputnik 25 USSR 5 January 1963 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit [103]
Luna 1963B USSR 2 February 1963 lander? failure failed to reach Earth orbit [104]
Luna 4 USSR 5 April 1963 lander? failure missed target, became Earth satellite [105]

1964

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ranger 6 NASA 2 February 1964 impactor partial success impacted, but no pictures returned due to power failure [106]
Luna 1964A USSR 21 March 1964 lander failure failed to reach Earth orbit [107]
Luna 1964B USSR 20 April 1964 lander failure failed to reach Earth orbit [108]
Zond 1964A USSR 4 June 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [109]
Ranger 7 NASA 31 July 1964 impactor success returned pictures up until impact [110]

1965

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ranger 8 NASA 20 February 1965 impactor success returned pictures up until impact [111]
Cosmos 60 USSR 12 March 1965 lander failure failed to leave Earth orbit [112]
Ranger 9 NASA 24 March 1965 impactor success TV broadcast of live pictures up until impact [113]
Luna 1965A USSR 10 April 1965 lander? failure failed to reach Earth orbit? [114]
Luna 5 USSR 12 May 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon [115]
Luna 6 USSR 8 June 1965 lander failure missed Moon [116]
Zond 3 USSR 20 July 1965 flyby success possibly originally intended as a Mars probe, but target changed after launch window missed [117]
Luna 7 USSR 7 October 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon [118]
Luna 8 USSR 6 December 1965 lander failure crashed into Moon [119]

1966

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 9 USSR 3 February 1966 –
6 February 1966
lander success first soft landing; first images from the surface [120]
Cosmos 111 USSR 1 March 1966 orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit [121]
Luna 10 USSR 3 April 1966 –
30 May 1966
orbiter success first artificial satellite of the moon [122]
Luna 1966A USSR 30 April 1966 orbiter? failure failed to reach Earth orbit [123]
Surveyor 1 NASA 2 June 1966 lander success first US soft landing; Surveyor program performed various tests in support of forthcoming manned landings [124]
Explorer 33 NASA 1 July 1966 –
15 September 1971
orbiter partial success studied interplanetary plasma, cosmic rays, magnetic fields and solar X rays; failed to attain lunar orbit as intended, but achieved mission objectives from Earth orbit [125]
Lunar Orbiter 1 NASA 14 August 1966 –
29 October 1966
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission [126]
Luna 11 USSR 28 August 1966 –
1 October 1966
orbiter success gamma-ray and X-ray-based observations of Moon's composition; gravity, radiation and meteorite studies [127]
Surveyor 2 NASA 23 September 1966 lander failure crashed into Moon [128]
Luna 12 USSR 25 October 1966 –
19 January 1967
orbiter success lunar surface photography [129]
Lunar Orbiter 2 NASA 10 November 1966 –
11 October 1967
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission [130]
Luna 13 USSR 24 December 1966 lander success TV pictures of lunar landscape; soil measurements [131]

1967

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Lunar Orbiter 3 NASA 8 February 1967 –
9 October 1967
orbiter success photographic mapping of lunar surface; intentionally impacted after completion of mission [132]
Surveyor 3 NASA 20 April 1967 –
4 May 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings [133]
Lunar Orbiter 4 NASA May–October 1967 orbiter success lunar photographic survey [134]
Explorer 35 NASA July 1967 –
24 June 1973
orbiter success studies of interplanetary plasma, magnetic fields, energetic particles and solar X rays [135]
Surveyor 4 NASA 17 July 1967 lander failure crashed into Moon [136]
Lunar Orbiter 5 NASA 5 August 1967 –
31 January 1968
orbiter success lunar photographic survey; intentionally impacted after completion of mission [137]
Surveyor 5 NASA 11 September 1967 –
17 December 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings [138]
Zond 1967A USSR 28 September 1967 failure lunar capsule test flight; launch failure [139]
Surveyor 6 NASA 10 November 1967 –
14 December 1967
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings [140]
Zond 1967B USSR 22 November 1967 failure lunar capsule test flight; launch failure [141]

1968

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Surveyor 7 NASA 10 January 1968 –
21 February 1968
lander success various studies, primarily in support of forthcoming manned landings; fifth and final Surveyor mission to achieve soft landing [142]
Luna 1968A USSR 7 February 1968 orbiter? failure failed to reach Earth orbit [143]
Zond 4 USSR 2 March 1968 (launch) lunar programme flight test, directed away from Moon, either intentionally or unintentionally [144]
Luna 14 USSR 10 April 1968 – ? orbiter success tests of radio communications technologies; lunar mascon studies [145]
Zond 1968A USSR 23 April 1968 flyby? failure launch failure [146]
Zond 5 USSR 18 September 1968 flyby success bioscience experiments [147]
Zond 6 USSR 14 November 1968 flyby success cosmic-ray, micrometeoroid and bioscience studies [148]

1969

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Zond 1969A USSR 20 January 1969 flyby failure launch aborted [149]
Luna 1969A USSR 19 February 1969 rover failure launch vehicle failure [150]
Zond L1S-1 USSR 21 February 1969 orbiter failure launch vehicle failure [151]
Luna 1969B USSR 15 April 1969 sample return? failure launch failure [152]
Luna 1969C USSR 14 June 1969 sample return failure launch failure [153]
Zond L1S-2 USSR 3 July 1969 orbiter failure launch failure [154]
Luna 15 USSR 21 July 1969 sample return? failure? completed 52 lunar orbits then crash-landed [155]
Zond 7 USSR 11 August 1969 flyby success returned to soft landing on Earth [156]
Cosmos 300 USSR 23 September 1969 sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit [157]
Cosmos 305 USSR 22 October 1969 sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit [158]

1970

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 1970A USSR 6 February 1970 sample return? failure launch vehicle failure [159]
Luna 1970B USSR 19 February 1970 orbiter? failure launch vehicle failure [160]
Luna 16 USSR 20 September 1970 sample return success first robotic sample return [161]
Zond 8 USSR 24 October 1970 flyby success returned to soft landing on Earth [162]
Luna 17 USSR 17 November 1970 –
4 October 1971
lander success deployed rover [163]
   Lunokhod 1 rover success first robotic rover; travelled over 10 km

1971–1983

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Luna 18 USSR 11 September 1971 lander/sample return? failure crashed into Moon [164]
Luna 19 USSR 3 October 1971 –
October 1972
orbiter success [165]
Luna 20 USSR 21 February 1972 sample return success second successful robotic sample return [166]
Soyuz L3 USSR 23 November 1972 orbiter failure launch failure [167]
Luna 21 USSR 15 January 1973 –
May 1973?
lander success deployed rover [168]
   Lunokhod 2 rover success second robotic rover; travelled 37 km
Explorer 49 NASA 15 June 1973 –
June 1975
orbiter success radio astronomy observations; last US lunar mission until 1994 [169]
Mariner 10 NASA November 1973 flyby success en route to Venus and Mercury [20]
Luna 22 USSR 2 June 1974 –
November 1974
orbiter success [170]
Luna 23 USSR 6 November 1974 sample return failure damaged on landing, sample return failed [171]
Luna 1975A USSR 16 October 1975 sample return failure failed to reach Earth orbit [172]
Luna 24 USSR 18 August 1976 sample return success third and final successful sample return in Luna programme [173]
ICE (formerly ISEE3) NASA 22 December 1983 flyby success gravity assist en route to comet flybys [174]

1990–present

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Hiten ISAS February 1992 – April 1993 orbiter success in Moon-crossing Earth orbit from January 1990, later transferred to lunar orbit after failure of Hagoromo; intentionally impacted on Moon at end of mission; first Japanese probe to enter lunar orbit [175]
   Hagoromo ISAS March 1990 orbiter failure released by Hiten into lunar orbit, but transmitter failed and orbit never confirmed
Clementine BMDO/
NASA
February – June 1994 orbiter partial success lunar and Earth observations and component testing; planned Geographos flyby failed [176]
AsiaSat 3 AsiaSat May/June 1998 errant communications satellite, flew within 6,200 kilometers of Moon during orbit correction manoeuvres [177]
Lunar Prospector NASA January 1998 –
July 1999
orbiter success lunar surface mapping; intentionally impacted into polar crater at end of mission to test for liberation of water vapour (not detected) [178]
Nozomi ISAS 24 September 1998 flyby success gravity assists on planned mission to Mars [179]
18 December 1998 flyby success
SMART-1 ESA 13 November 2004 –
3 September 2006
orbiter success technology testbed and lunar geological studies; intentionally impacted at end of mission; first European probe to orbit the Moon [180]
SELENE
(Kaguya)
JAXA 3 October 2007 – 10 June 2009 orbiter success mineralogical, geographical, magnetic and gravitational observations [181]
Okina
(Relay Star)
JAXA 9 October 2007 – 12 February 2009 Kaguya subsatellite success relay for Kaguya's Far Side operations
Ouna
(VRAD)
JAXA 12 October 2007 – Kaguya subsatellite success Very Long Baseline Interferometry
Chang'e 1 CNSA 5 November 2007 – 1 March 2009 orbiter success 3D lunar mapping and geological observations; first Chinese probe to orbit a body besides Earth [182]
Chandrayaan I ISRO 8 November 2008 – orbiter in orbit high resolution three-dimensional mapping and spectral analysis of the Moon's surface and inner compositions [183]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP) ISRO 14 November 2008 impactor successful test and demonstrate targeting technologies in anticipation of future soft landings, scientific observation of the Moon from close range [184]
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter NASA 18 June 2009 orbiter in transit survey of lunar resources and identification of possible landing sites [185]
   LCROSS impactor will analyze upper-stage impact plume for traces of water liberated from the Moon's surface [186]

Future

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Chandrayaan II Orbiter ISRO 2010 orbiter under development receiving, analyzing and sending back the information sent by the Chadrayaan II rover from the lunar surface and taking high resolution pictures of lunar surface. [187]
Chandrayaan II Rover ISRO 2010 rover under development studying and analyzing the lunar soil and rocks, looking for any possible deposits of helium-3 and water ice on the lunar surface. [188]
Chang'e 2 CNSA 2010 orbiter planned sketch three-dimensional lunar map, measure and analyze content of the surface [189]
lander

Mars probes

1960s

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars 1960A USSR 10 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [190]
Mars 1960B USSR 14 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [191]
Mars 1962A USSR 24 October 1962 flyby failure exploded in or en route to Earth orbit [192]
Mars 1962B USSR 11 November 1962 (launch) lander failure broke up during transfer to Mars trajectory [193]
Mars 1 USSR 19 June 1963 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within approximately 193,000 km of Mars [194]
Mariner 3 NASA 5 November 1964 flyby failure protective shield failed to eject, preventing craft from attaining correct trajectory [195]
Zond 2 USSR 6 August 1965 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within 1,500 km of Mars [196]
Mariner 4 NASA 15 July 1965 flyby success first close-up images of Mars [197]
Mariner 6 NASA 31 July 1969 flyby success [198]
Mariner 7 NASA 5 August 1969 flyby success [199]
Mars 1969A USSR 27 March 1969 orbiter failure launch failure [200]
Mars 1969B USSR 2 April 1969 orbiter failure launch failure [201]

1970s

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 8 NASA 9 May 1971 orbiter failure launch vehicle failure [202]
Mariner 9 NASA 14 November 1971 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit another planet [203]
Mars 2 USSR November 1971 –
August 1972
orbiter success first Russian spacecraft to orbit another planet [204]
   Mars 2 Lander USSR 27 November 1971 lander and short range rover failure crashed; first manmade object to reach surface of Mars [205]
Mars 3 USSR December 1971 –
August 1972
orbiter partial success attained a different orbit than intended due to insufficient fuel [206]
Mars 3 Lander USSR 2 December 1971 lander and short range rover failure contact lost 110 sec after soft landing [207]
Cosmos 419 USSR 10 May 1971 orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit [208]
Mars 4 USSR 10 February 1974 orbiter failure orbit insertion failed, became flyby [209]
Mars 5 USSR February 1974 orbiter success [210]
Mars 6 USSR 12 March 1974 flyby success [211]
Mars 6 Lander USSR 12 March 1974 lander failure contact lost 148 sec after parachute deployment
Mars 7 USSR 9 March 1974 flyby success [212]
Mars 7 Lander USSR 9 March 1974 lander failure missed Mars
Viking 1 Orbiter NASA June 1976 –
August 1980
orbiter success [213]
Viking 1 Lander NASA 20 July 1976 –
13 November 1982
lander success first images from surface [214]
Viking 2 Orbiter NASA August 1976 –
July 1978
orbiter success [215]
Viking 2 Lander NASA 3 September 1976 –
11 April 1980
lander success [216]

1980s

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost en route to Mars [217]
Phobos 2 USSR 29 January 1989 –
27 March 1989
orbiter partial success Mars orbit acquired, but contact lost shortly before Phobos approach phase and deployment of Phobos landers [218]

1990s

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars Observer NASA 25 September 1992 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost shortly before Mars orbit insertion [219]
Mars 96 RFSA 16 November 1996 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit [220]
lander [221]
lander [222]
penetrator [223]
penetrator [224]
Mars Pathfinder NASA 4 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
lander success [225]
    Sojourner NASA 6 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
rover success first Mars rover [226]
Mars Global Surveyor NASA 12 September 1997 –
2 November 2006
orbiter success [227]
Mars Climate Orbiter NASA 23 September 1999 orbiter failure Mars orbit insertion failed due to navigation error [228]
Mars Polar Lander NASA 3 December 1999 lander failure contact lost just prior to entering Martian atmosphere [229]
Deep Space 2 "Amundsen" NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator [230]
Deep Space 2 "Scott" NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator

2000s

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2001 Mars Odyssey NASA 24 October 2001 – orbiter success studying climate and geology; communications relay for Spirit and Opportunity rovers [231]
Nozomi ISAS 14 December 2003 orbiter failure failed to attain Mars orbit, became flyby [232]
Mars Express ESA 25 December 2003 – orbiter success surface imaging and mapping; first European probe in Martian orbit [233]
   Beagle 2 UK 25 December 2003 lander failure no contact after landing [234]
MER-A "Spirit" NASA 4 January 2004 – rover success [235]
MER-B "Opportunity" NASA 25 January 2004 – rover success [236]
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter NASA 10 March 2006 – orbiter success surface imaging and surveying [237]
Rosetta ESA 25 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters [238]
Phoenix NASA 25 May 2008 –
10 November 2008
lander success collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water and investigate Mars' geological history and biological potential [239]
Dawn NASA February 17, 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to Vesta and Ceres [240]

Future

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars Science Laboratory NASA 2011 rover under construction [241]
ExoMars ESA 2016 rover planned [242]
Astrobiology Field Laboratory NASA 2016 rover under study [243]
Mars Sample Return Mission NASA/
ESA
2024? orbiter, lander, rover, and sample return under study [244]

Phobos probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) flyby failure contact lost en route to Mars [245]
   DAS USSR 2 September 1988 fixed lander failure never deployed
Phobos 2 USSR 27 March 1989 (contact lost) flyby failure attained Mars orbit; contact lost prior to deployment of lander [246]
   DAS USSR 27 March 1989 fixed lander failure never deployed
   "Frog" USSR 27 March 1989 mobile lander failure never deployed
Phobos-Grunt RFSA 2009 sample return planned [21]

Asteroid probes

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
951 Gaspra Galileo NASA 29 October 1991 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 1900 km [247]
243 Ida Galileo NASA 28 August 1993 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 2400 km; discovery of the first asteroid satellite Dactyl [248]
1620 Geographos Clementine BMDO/
NASA
1994 flyby failure flyby cancelled due to equipment malfunction [249]
253 Mathilde NEAR
Shoemaker
NASA 27 June 1997 flyby success flew within 1200 km of 253 Mathilde en route to 433 Eros [250]
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
NASA January 1999 orbiter failure became flyby due to software and communications problems (later attempt at orbit insertion succeeded; see below) [251]
9969 Braille Deep Space 1 NASA 29 July 1999 flyby partial success no close-up images due to camera pointing error; went on to visit comet 19P/Borrelly [252]
2685 Masursky Cassini NASA/
ESA/
ASI
23 January 2000 distant flyby success en route to Saturn [253]
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
NASA February 2000 –
February 2001
orbiter, became lander success improvised landing by orbiter at end of mission [254]
5535 Annefrank Stardust NASA November 2, 2002 distant flyby success went on to visit comet 81P/Wild [255]
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa ISAS 2005–07 sample return returning to Earth return journey to Earth began in April 2007, scheduled to arrive in 2010; status of sample unclear [256]
    MINERVA ISAS 12 November 2005 hopper failure missed target
132524 APL New Horizons NASA June 2006 distant flyby success en route to Pluto [257]
2867 Šteins Rosetta ESA 5 September 2008 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [258]
21 Lutetia Rosetta ESA July 2010 flyby en route en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [259]
4 Vesta Dawn NASA September 2011 orbiter en route scheduled to continue to Ceres [260]

Jupiter probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 NASA 3 December 1973 flyby success first probe to cross the asteroid belt; first Jupiter probe; first man-made object on an interstellar trajectory; now in the outer regions of the Solar System but no longer contactable [261]
Pioneer 11 NASA 4 December 1974 flyby success went on to visit Saturn [262]
Voyager 1 NASA 5 March 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn [263]
Voyager 2 NASA 9 July 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn, Uranus and Neptune [264]
Ulysses
(first pass)
ESA/
NASA
February 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations [265]
Galileo Orbiter NASA/
DLR
7 December 1995 –
21 September 2003
orbiter success also flew by various of Jupiter's moons; intentionally flown into Jupiter at end of mission; first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter; first spacecraft to flyby an asteroid [266]
   Galileo Probe NASA/
DLR
7 December 1995 atmospheric probe success first probe to enter Jupiter's atmosphere [267]
Cassini NASA/
ESA/
ASI
December 2000 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn [268]
Ulysses
(second pass)
ESA/
NASA
2003–04 distant flyby success [269]
New Horizons NASA 28 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to Pluto [270]
Juno NASA 2016 orbiter in development [271]

Saturn probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 11 NASA 1 September 1979 flyby success previously visited Jupiter [272]
Voyager 1 NASA 12 November 1980 flyby success previously visited Jupiter [273]
Voyager 2 NASA 5 August 1981 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, went on to visit Uranus and Neptune [274]
Cassini NASA/
ESA/
ASI
1 July 2004 – orbiter success also performed flybys of a number of Saturn's moons, and deployed the Huygens Titan lander; first spacecraft to orbit Saturn [275]

Titan probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Huygens ESA 14 January 2005 atmospheric probe, lander success deployed by Cassini; first probe to land on a satellite of another planet [276]
Titan Saturn System Mission ESA/
NASA
October 2029 orbiter, montgolfière, lander under study deployed by TBD

Uranus probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 NASA 24 January 1986 flyby success previously visited Jupiter and Saturn; went on to visit Neptune [277]

Neptune probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 NASA 25 August 1989 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus [278]

Dwarf planet probes

Ceres probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Dawn NASA 2015 orbiter en route will orbit Vesta first [279]

Pluto probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
New Horizons NASA 2015 flyby en route flybys of other Kuiper Belt objects may follow (targets yet to be decided) [280]

Comet probes

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
21P/Giacobini-Zinner ICE (formerly ISEE3) NASA 11 September 1985 flyby success previously solar monitor ISEE3; went on to observe Halley's Comet [281]
1P/Halley Vega 1 SAS 6 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus [282]
1P/Halley Suisei ISAS 8 March 1986 flyby success 151,000 km [283]
1P/Halley Vega 2 SAS 9 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus [284]
1P/Halley Sakigake ISAS March 1986 distant flyby partial success minimum distance 6.99 million km [285]
1P/Halley Giotto ESA 14 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 596 km; went on to visit comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup [286]
1P/Halley ICE (formerly ISEE3) NASA 28 March 1986 distant obser-
vations
success minimum distance 32 million km; previously visited comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner [287]
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto ESA 10 July 1992 flyby success previously visited Halley's Comet [288]
45P/
Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
Sakigake ISAS 1996 flyby failure contact lost; previously visited Halley's Comet [289]
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Sakigake ISAS 1998 flyby failure
55P/Tempel-Tuttle Suisei ISAS 1998 flyby failure abandoned due to lack of fuel; previously visited Halley's Comet [290]
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Suisei ISAS 1998 flyby failure
19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 NASA 22 September 2001 flyby success previously visited asteroid 9969 Braille [291]
2P/Encke CONTOUR NASA 2003 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch [292]
81P/Wild Stardust NASA 2 January 2004 flyby, sample return success sample returned January 2006; also visited asteroid 5535 Annefrank [293]
9P/Tempel Deep Impact NASA July 2005 flyby success [294]
    Impactor NASA 4 July 2005 impactor success
73P/
Schwassmann-Wachmann
CONTOUR NASA 2006 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch [295]
6P/d'Arrest CONTOUR NASA 2008 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch [296]
103P/Hartley Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) NASA 11 October 2010 flyby en route mission extension (target changed from comet Boethin) [297]
9P/Tempel Stardust (redesignated NExT) NASA 14 February 2011 flyby en route mission extension [298]
67P/Churyumov-
Gerasimenko
Rosetta ESA 2014–15 orbiter en route flybys of asteroids 2867 Šteins and 21 Lutetia also scheduled [299]
    Philae ESA 2014 lander en route [300]

Probes leaving the Solar System

Spacecraft Organization Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 NASA Left Jupiter in December 1973. Mission ended March 1997. Last contact January 23, 2003. Craft now presumed dead; no further contact attempts planned. [301]
Pioneer 11 NASA Left Saturn in September 1979. Last contact September 1995. The craft's antenna cannot be manoeuvred to point to Earth, and it is not known if it is still transmitting. No further contact attempts are planned. [302]
Voyager 1 NASA Left Saturn in November 1980. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of June 2009). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. [303]
Voyager 2 NASA Left Neptune in August 1989. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of June 2009). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. [304]
New Horizons NASA Currently en route to outer Solar System. Expected to reach Pluto in July 2015. [305]

Other probes to leave Earth orbit

For completeness, this section lists probes that have left (or will leave) Earth orbit, but are not targeted at any of the above bodies.

Spacecraft Organization Date Location Status Notes Image Ref
WMAP NASA 30 June 2001 (launch) – still active (as of April 2008[22]) Sun-Earth L2 point success cosmic background radiation observations [306]
Spitzer Space Telescope NASA 25 August 2003 (launch) – still active (as of June 2009) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit success infrared astronomy [307]
Kepler NASA 6 March 2009 (launch) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit launched search for extrasolar planets [308]
Herschel Space Observatory ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point en route to operating orbit study of formation and evolution of galaxies and stars [309]
Planck Surveyor ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point en route to operating orbit cosmic microwave background observations [310]
LISA Pathfinder ESA Late 2009 (launch) Sun-Earth L1 point planned test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory [311]
IKAROS JAXA May 2010 (launch)[312] Earth-Venus transfer heliocentric orbit planned technology development / interplanetary space exproration [313]
James Webb Space Telescope NASA
ESA
CSA
2013 (launch) Sun-Earth L2 point planned infrared astronomy [314]

Cancelled probes and missions

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mercury BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element ESA lander cancelled
Moon LUNAR-A JAXA orbiter, penetrators cancelled originally scheduled for 2004, finally cancelled 2007 [315]
Mars Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander NASA 2001 lander cancelled [316]
Mars NetLander CNES/
ESA
lander cancelled [317]
Mars Mars Telecommunications Orbiter NASA 2010 orbiter cancelled [318]
Phobos Aladdin NASA sample return not selected [319]
Europa Europa Orbiter NASA orbiter cancelled [320]
Europa Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter NASA orbiter cancelled [321]
Ganymede Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter NASA orbiter cancelled [322]
Callisto Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter NASA orbiter cancelled [323]
Pluto Pluto Fast Flyby NASA 2010 flyby cancelled Now known as New Horizons
Pluto Pluto Kuiper
Express
NASA 2012 flyby cancelled Now known as New Horizons [324]
4660 Nereus Hayabusa ISAS sample return cancelled rerouted to 25143 Itokawa [325]
3840 Mimistrobell Rosetta ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted [326]
4979 Otawara Rosetta ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted [327]
4660 Nereus Near Earth Asteroid Prospector SpaceDev sample return cancelled [328]
46P/Wirtanen Rosetta ESA 2011 orbiter cancelled rerouted to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [329]

See also

  1. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer 5". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-001A. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  2. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer 6". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-105A. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  3. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer 7". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-075A. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  4. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer 8". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-123A. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  5. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer 9". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-100A. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  6. ^ "NSSDC Master Catalog - Pioneer E". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=PIONE. Retrieved on June 19 2008. 
  7. ^ "Helios-A". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1974-097A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  8. ^ "Helios-B". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1976-003A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  9. ^ "ISEE 3". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1976-003A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  10. ^ "Ulysses". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1990-090B. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  11. ^ "Wind". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1994-071A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  12. ^ "SOHO". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1995-065A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  13. ^ "ACE". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1997-045A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  14. ^ "GENESIS". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2001-034A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  15. ^ "STEREO A". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2006-047A. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  16. ^ "STEREO B". National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=2006-047B. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  17. ^ "Solar Sentinels: Mission Study Report" (html). NASA. 2008. http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/documents/sentinels/Solar_Sentinels.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-10. 
  18. ^ "Call for Submission of Letters of Intent to Propose Instruments for the Solar Orbiter Mission" (html). European Space Agency. 2006. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=39588. Retrieved on 2008-07-10. 
  19. ^ Science and Technology Definition Team (2008). "Solar Probe" (pdf). ESA. http://solarprobe.gsfc.nasa.gov/SolarProbePlus_pre.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-01. 
  20. ^ "Mariner 10" (HTML). National Space Science Data Centre. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1973-085A. Retrieved on 2008-07-16. 
  21. ^ "Phobos-Grunt" (in English) (html). ESA. 2004. http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/documents/sentinels/Solar_Sentinels.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-10. 
  22. ^ "WMAP 5-year results reveal neutrinos and tighten inflation", CERN Courier, Apr 16, 2008





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