Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB , ICAO: OMDB ) (Arabic: مطار دبي الدولي) is an international airport serving Dubai. It is a major airline hub in the Middle East, and is the main airport of Dubai. It is situated in the Al Garhoud district, 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) east of Dubai. The airport is operated by the Dubai Airports Company and is the home base of Dubai's international airlines, Emirates, FlyDubai and Emirates SkyCargo; the Emirates hub is the largest airline hub in the Middle East; Emirates handles 64 per cent of all passenger traffic, and accounts for 50 per cent of all aircraft movements at the airport. Dubai Airport is also the base for low-cost carrier, Flydubai which handles 10.7 per cent of passenger traffic at DXB. The airport became a secondary hub for Qantas in April 2013. The airport consists of three terminals and has a total capacity of 80 million passengers annually. Terminal 3 is the second largest building in the world by floor space and the largest airport terminal in the world. As of September 2012, there are over 6,000 weekly flights operated by 130 airlines to over 220 destinations across every continent except Antarctica.
Dubai Airport is spread over an area of 8,640 acres (3,500 ha) of land. In 2012 DXB handled a record 57.7 million in passenger traffic, a 13.2 per cent increase over 2011. This made it the 10th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic. and also the 3rd busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic. In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport was the 6th busiest cargo airport in world, handling 2.27 million tonnes of cargo in 2012. The total number of commercial aircraft movements was 344,245 in 2012.
Dubai International is an important contributor to the Dubai economy, employing approximately 58,000 people, and indirectly supports over 250,000 jobs in Dubai and contributes over US$22 billion to the GDP, which represents around 19 per cent of total employment in Dubai, and 28 per cent of Dubai's GDP. It is predicted that by 2020 the economic contribution of Dubai's aviation sector will rise to 32 per cent of Dubai's GDP and support over 373,000 jobs.
The history of civil aviation in Dubai started in July 1937 when an air agreement was signed for a flying boat base for the aircraft of Imperial Airways with rental of the base at about 440 Rupees per month – this included the guards' wages. The Empire Flying Boats also started operating once a week flying east to Karachi and west to Southampton, England. By February 1938, there were four flying boats a week.
In the 1940s flying from Dubai was by flying boats operated by British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), operating the Horseshoe line from Southern Africa via the Persian Gulf to Sydney.
On 29 October 2010, the airport marked its 50th anniversary. The airport has seen over 402 million passengers at an average annual growth rate of 15.5 per cent, and handled over 3.87 million aircraft at an average annual growth rate of 12.4 per cent.
Construction of the airport was ordered by the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, in 1959. It officially opened in 1960 with its first airfield, at which time it was able to handle aircraft the size of a Douglas DC-3 on a 1,800 m (5,906 ft) long runway made of compacted sand. Three turning-areas, an apron and small terminal completed the airport that was constructed by Costain.
In May 1963 construction of a 9,200 ft (2,804 m) asphalt runway started. This new runway, alongside the original sand runway and taxiway opened in May 1965, together with several new extensions were added to the Terminal Building, hangars erected, Airport and Navigational aids were installed. The installation of the lighting system continued after official opening and was completed in August of that year. During the second half of the 1960s several extensions, equipment upgrades like a VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) and an instrument landing system (ILS) as well as new buildings were constructed. By 1969, the airport was served by 9 airlines serving some 20 destinations.
The inauguration was on 15 May 1966 and was marked by the visits of the first big jets of Middle East Airlines and Kuwait Airways Comets.
The advent of wide body aircraft a need for further airport development in the 1970s which had already been foreseen by the Ruler of Dubai and plans for a new Terminal, runways and taxiways capable of coping with international flights. The construction of a new terminal building consisting of a three-storey building 110 m (360 ft) long and included an enclosed floor area of 13,400 m 2 (144,000 sq ft). A new 28 m (92 ft) control tower was also constructed.
Expansion continued in the early 1970s including ILS Category II equipment, lengthening existing runway to 12,500 ft (3,810 m), installation of a non-directional beacon (NDB), diesel generators, taxiways, etc. This work made handling the Boeing 747 and Concorde possible. Several runway and apron extensions were carried out through the decade to meet growing demand.
The new precision category 2 Approach and Runway Lighting System was commissioned. The construction of the Airport Fire Station and the installation of the generators were completed in December and was fully operational in March 1972. The ruler also commissioned and inaugurated the Long-range Surveillance System on 19 June 1973.
With the expansion of the Airport Fire Services it was necessary to find more suitable accommodation and a hangar style building was made available to them at the end of 1976. This was located midway between the runway ends to facilitate efficient operations. A new building was also constructed to house the Airport Maintenance Engineer, Electronics Engineering section and Stores unit.
Expansion of the Airport Restaurant and Transit Lounge including the refurbishing of the upper level and the provision of a new kitchen was completed in December 1978.
The next phase of development was the second runway, which was completed three months ahead of schedule and opened in April 1984. This runway, located 360 m (1,180 ft) north of the existing runway and parallel to it and is equipped with the latest meteorological, airfield lighting and instrument landing systems to give the airport a Category II classification.
Also several extensions and upgrades of terminal facilities and supporting systems were carried out. On 23 December 1980 the airport became an ordinary member of the Airports Council International (ACI).
Dubai Airport fire station and terminal/control tower seen from the landside, early 1965
The first jet aircraft to land on the new runway at Dubai Airport in 1965 was a Comet from Middle East Airlines
During the 1980s, Dubai was a stopping point for airlines such as Air India, Cathay Pacific, Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines and others travelling between Asia and Europe that needed a refuelling point in the Persian Gulf. This use was made redundant with the availability of Russian airspace due to the breakup of the Soviet Union and the advent of longer-range aircraft introduced in the late 1980s and early 1990s such as the Airbus A340, the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing 777 series aircraft, which had the range to fly between Europe and Southeast Asia nonstop.
Azerbaijan Airlines Boeing 707-300 parked at a remote stand in DXB (1995)
Aircraft parked at concourse C. Concourse C has a capacity of 33 million passengers
The opening of Terminal 2 in 1998 saw the first step of phase 1 of the new development master plan launched in 1997. As the second stage, Concourse 1 opened in April 2000 under the name of Sheikh Rashid Terminal. The concourse is 0.8 km (0.50 mi) in length and connects to the check-in area by a 0.3 km (0.19 mi) underground tunnel containing moving walkways (conveyor belt/travelators). It also contains a hotel, business centre, health club, exchanges, dining and entertainment facilities, internet services, medical centre, post office, prayer room. The next step was the reconfiguration of the runway system, already part of phase 2, and aprons and taxiways were expanded and strengthened in 2003–2004. In addition, the Dubai Flower Centre opened in 2005 as part of the development. The airport saw the need for this as the city is a hub for import and export of flowers and the airport required a specialist facility since flowers need special conditions.
Construction of Terminal 3 began in 2004 as the next stage of phase 2 of the development, with an estimated cost of around $4.55 billion. Completion was originally planned for 2006, but was delayed by two years.
On 30 May 2008, a topping out ceremony was conducted. The terminal became operational on 14 October 2008, with Emirates Airline (EK2926) from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, being the first flight to arrive at the new terminal, and EK843 to Doha, Qatar being the first departing flight. The terminal increased the airport's maximum passenger capacity annually by 47 million, bringing the total annual capacity up to 75 million passengers.
With the arrival of the Airbus A380, the airport made modifications costing $230 million. These included the building of 29 gates capable of handling the large aircraft, five of which are in Terminal 3, and two in Terminal 1. Other important projects at the airport include the next stage of the phase 2 development, which includes the construction of Concourse 3. This will be a smaller version of Concourse 2, which is connected to Terminal 3.
Also as part of the expansion, the airport is now able to handle at least 75 million (an increase of 19 million) passengers per annum with the opening of Concourse 3, which is part of Terminal 3. However, recent communications predict a further increase to 80 million passengers with additional reassessments of existing capacities. In 2009, Terminal 2 expanded its facilities to handle 5 million (an increase of 2 million) passengers annually, taking the airport's total capacity to 62 million passengers. The Department of Civil Aviation has said that Terminal 2 will continuously be upgraded and expanded to bring the total capacity of the airport from the initial 75 million passengers to 80 million passenger capacity by 2012.
The Cargo Mega Terminal, which will have the capacity to handle 3 million tonnes of cargo a year, is a major development; it is going to be built in the long term. Completion of the Mega terminal is expected to be no later than 2018. Terminal 2 will be completely redeveloped to match the status of the other two terminals. With all of these projects completed by 2013, the airport expects to be able of handling at least 75–80 million passengers and over 5 million tonnes of cargo.
The airport's landside facilities were modified to allow construction of two stations for the Red Line of Dubai Metro. One station was built at Terminal 1 and the other at Terminal 3; both are in operation. The line was launched on 9 September 2009, and opened in phases over the next year. The second Metro line, the Green Line, runs near the Airport Free Zone, and has served the airport's north-eastern area with the Terminal 2 from September 2011.
The proposed 52 km (32 mi) Purple Line will link Dubai International Airport and Al Maktoum International Airport, which is currently being built at Jebel Ali.
With phase 2 of DXB's expansion plan complete, the airport now has three terminals and three concourses, two cargo mega terminals, an airport free zone, an expo centre with three large exhibition halls, a major aircraft maintenance hub and a flower centre to handle perishable goods. A phase 3 which has been included in the master-plan involves the construction of a new Concourse 4.
The airport revealed its future plans in May 2011, which involve construction of a new Concourse D for all airlines currently operating from concourse C. Concourse D is expected to bring the total capacity of the airport to over 90 million passengers, and will be operating by 2016. The plan also involves Emirates solely operating from Concourse C along with Concourse A and B which it is already operating.
In September 2012, Dubai Airports changed the names of concourses to make it easier for passengers to navigate the airport. Concourse 1, in which over 100 international airlines operate, became Concourse C. Concourse 2 became Concourse B and Concourse 3 became Concourse A. The gates in Terminal 2 have changed and are numbered F1 to F6. The remaining alpha-numeric sequences are being reserved for future airport facilities that are part of the Dubai Airports' $7.8 billion expansion programme, including Concourse D.
Dubai's government has announced the construction of a new airport in Jebel Ali termed Al Maktoum International Airport. It is expected upon completion to be the fourth largest airport in the world by physical size, though not by passenger metrics. It is expected to open in 2010, however construction is expected to finish by the year 2017. On completion, the airport is expected to be able to accommodate up to 160 million passengers. There has been an official plan to build the Dubai Metro Purple Line to connect Al Maktoum International Airport to Dubai International Airport; construction is set to begin in 2012. There have been rumours that the purple line is on hold, or even cancelled.
Main airlines based at DXB
Emirates operations at DXB
Recreational flying to Dubai is catered for by the Dubai Aviation Club, which undertakes flying training for private pilots and provides facilities for private owners.
The Government of Dubai provides short and long range search and rescue services, police support, medical evacuation and general purpose flights for the airport and all VIP flights to the airport.
Dubai International Airport was conceptualised to function as Dubai's primary airport and the region's busiest for the foreseeable future without the need for relocation or the building of another airport when passenger figures increased. The area was chosen near to Dubai, to attract passengers from the city of Dubai, rather than travel to the busier Sharjah International Airport. The planned location originally was Jebel Ali.
Aircraft parked at remote stands at DXB
The original master plan for the existing airport initially involved a dual-terminal and one runway configuration over two phases with provisions for another two passenger terminals in the near future. Phase 1 included the construction for the first passenger terminal, the first runway, 70 aircraft parking bays, support facilities and structures, including a large maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents' buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and a 78 m (256 ft) control tower. Construction for the second phase would commence immediately after the completion of Phase 1 and include the second runway, 50 new aircraft parking bays in addition to the existing 70 bays, a second fire station and a third cargo agent building.
The third phase included construction of a new terminal (now the parts of Terminal 1's main building and Concourse 1) and an additional 60 parking bays, as well as new aircraft maintenance facility. then, in the early 2000s a new master plan was introduced.
Air traffic control tower
The air traffic control tower (ATC) was constructed as part of phase two of the then-development plan.
Dubai International Airport has four terminals. Terminal 1 has one concourse, Terminal 2 is set apart from the other two main buildings and Terminal 3 is divided into Concourse A and B. The cargo terminal is capable of handling 3 million tonnes of cargo annually and a general aviation terminal (GAT) is close by. In 2015, a fourth concourse will open (Concourse D) and will see all airlines currently operating from concourse C shift operations there. Thus, concourse A, B, and C will become part of Terminal 3 and concourse D will be part of Terminal 1.
A bird eye view of concourse B and C. Concourse A (not shown) is connected to Terminal 3 via an Automated People Mover. Concourse D will also be connected to Terminal 1 via an APM when complete in 2015
Aircraft parked at Concourse C before most of Emirates' operations moved to Concourse B. Emirates will take over operations of concourse C in 2015 once all airlines currently operating from concourse C move to concourse D
Dubai Airport has three passenger terminals. Terminals 1 and 3 are directly connected with a common transit area, with airside passengers being able to move freely between the terminals without going through immigration, while Terminal 2 is on the opposite side of the airport. For transiting passengers, a shuttle service runs between the terminals, with a journey time of around 20 minutes from Terminal 2 to Terminal 1, and 30 minutes to Terminal 3. Passengers in Terminal 3 who need to transfer between concourse A and the rest of the Terminal have to travel via an Automated People Mover. In 2015 when concourse D is complete, passengers will be required to use another Automated People Mover to connect to concourse D from Terminal 1.
Situated beside Terminal 2 is the Executive Flights Terminal, which has its own check-in facilities for premium passengers and where transportation to aircraft in any of the other terminals is by personal buggy.
The three passenger terminals have a total handling capacity of around 80 million passengers a year.
Terminals 1 and 3 cater to international passengers, whilst Terminal 2 is for budget passengers and passengers flying to the Sub-Continent and Persian Gulf region; Terminals 1 and 3 handle 85 per cent of the passenger traffic; and the Executive Flights terminal are for the higher end travellers and important guests.
Terminal 1 has a capacity of 33 million passengers. It is used by over a 100 airlines and is connected to Concourse C, the so-called, 1 km (0.62 mi) long Sheikh Rashid Terminal by an underground, 300 m (980 ft) long tunnel. It is spread over an area of 515,020 m 2 (5,543,600 sq ft) and offers 221 check in counters.
The Terminal was originally built to handle 21 million passengers, however with extreme congestion at the terminal, the airport was forced to expand the terminal to accommodate 33 million people with the opening of 28 remote gates, an increase of 12 million. Over the years, more mobile gates were added to the airport bringing the total as of 2010 to 28.
In 2013, Dubai Airports announced a major renovation for Terminal 1 and concourse C. The renovations include upgraded baggage systems, replacement of check-in desks, and a more spacious departure hall. Arrivals will also see improvements to help reduce waiting times. The renovation is expected to be completed by the end of 2014.
Interior of Concourse C. In 2013 Dubai Airports announced a renovation program of concourse C and Terminal 1 expected to be completed in 2015
Concourse C, part of Terminal 1, was opened in 2000 and used to be the largest concourse at Dubai International Airport before Concourse B in Terminal 3 opened. It incorporates 50 gates, including 28 air bridges and 22 remote gates located at a lower level of the terminal. The gates are labelled C1 – C50.
The concourse includes over 17 food and beverage cafes and restaurants, with the food court being located on the Departures Level. Also located in the concourse is a 5 star hotel, and a 5,400 m 2 (58,000 sq ft) duty-free shopping facility. Other facilities include prayer rooms, and a medical centre. Emirates continues to maintain a presence in Concourse C, operating 12 gates there as well as the Emirates first Class and Business Class Lounges at the Terminal. Other airline lounges include the Gulf Air, British Airways, KLM and the Star Alliance have their own dedicated lounges.
Planning begun for further expansion of Dubai Airport, with the construction of Terminal 4, it was revealed on the day Emirates completed its phased operations at the new Terminal 3, on 14 November 2008. According to Dubai Airport officials, plans for Terminal 4 had begun and extensions would be made to Terminal 3. These are required to bring the capacity of the airport to 80–90 million passengers a year by 2015.
In May 2011, Paul Griffiths, chief executive of Dubai Airports revealed the Dubai Airport masterplan. It involves the construction of a Concourse D (previously Terminal 4). With a capacity of 15 million, it would bring the total capacity of the airport to 90 million passengers by 2018 – an increase of 15 million. It also will see Emirates take over the operation at Concourse C, along with concourse A and B which it will already be operating. All remaining airlines will shift to Concourse D, or move to Al Maktoum International Airport. The airport projects that international passenger and cargo traffic will increase at an average annual growth rate of 7.2 per cent and 6.7 per cent respectively and that by 2020 passenger numbers at Dubai International Airport will reach 98.5 million and cargo volumes will top 4.1 million tonnes.
Terminal 2 built in 1998 has an area of 15,000 m 2 (160,000 sq ft) and has a capacity of 10 million as of 2013, after several, decent reconstructions and a major expansion in 2012 which saw capacity double. It is used by over 50 airlines, mainly operating in the Persian Gulf region. Most flights operate to Iran, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
In June 2009, Terminal 2 became the hub of Flydubai, and the terminal houses the airline's corporate head office.
Terminal 2 has undergone a major refurbishment recently, extending check-in and boarding facilities, changing the interior and exterior décor and offering more dining choices to passengers. Capacity was increased to allow for 10 million passengers, an increase of 5 million.
The terminal has now increased the number of facilities available to passengers. Check-in counters have increased to 37. The boarding area is more spacious, with more natural light. Also the new open boarding gates allow several flights to board simultaneously, improving passenger and aircraft movements. There are a total of 43 remote stands at the terminal.
The Dubai duty-free shopping area covers 2,400 m 2 (26,000 sq ft) in departures and 540 m 2 (5,800 sq ft) in arrivals. The 3,600 m 2 (39,000 sq ft) extension included a larger arrivals hall as well.
The partly underground Terminal 3 was built at a cost of US$8 billion, exclusively for Emirates and has a capacity of 47 million passengers. The terminal has 5 Airbus A380 gates at Concourse B, and 18 at Concourse A. It was announced on 6 September 2012 that Terminal 3 would no longer be Emirates exclusive, as Emirates and Qantas had set up an extensive code sharing agreement. Qantas would be the second and only one of two airlines to fly in and out of Terminal 3. This deal also allows Qantas to use the A380 Dedicated Concourse.
Dubai Duty Free in concourse B
The hotel located on the top floor and part of the indoor garden in concourse B
The Departures area of Terminal 3, with the arrivals area located underground
The Qantas inaugural flight to Dubai
Upon completion, Terminal 3 was the largest building in the world by floor space, with over 1,713,000 m 2 (18,440,000 sq ft) of space, capable of handling 47 million passengers in a year. A large part is located under the taxiway area and is directly connected to Concourse B: the departure and arrival halls in the new structure are 10 m (33 ft) beneath the airport's apron. Concourse A is connected to the terminal via an APM. It has been operational since 14 October 2008, and opened in four phases to avoid collapse of baggage handling and other IT systems.
The building includes a multi level underground structure, first and business class lounges, restaurants, 180 check-in counters and 2,600 car-parking spaces. The terminal offers more than double the previous retail area of concourse C, by adding about 4,800 m 2 (52,000 sq ft) and Concourse B's 10,700 m 2 (115,000 sq ft) of shopping facilities.
The baggage handling system – the largest system and also the deepest in the world – has a capacity to handle 8,000 bags per hour. The system includes 21 screening injection points, 49 make-up carousels, 90 km (56 mi) of conveyor belts capable of handling 15,000 items per hour at a speed of 27 km/h (17 mph), and 4,500 early baggage storage positions.
In arrivals, the terminal contains 52 immigration counters, and 14 baggage carousels.
The car park includes 1,870 car spaces, 163 car rental spaces, and 44 Emirates bus spaces.
On 7 September 2010, Terminal 3 saw its 50 millionth passenger pass through the terminal. Since opening in October 2008, the terminal has handled more than 197,920 aircraft movements (departures and arrivals), 50 million passengers and some 70 million pieces of luggage. Currently some 85,000 passengers pass through this terminal every day.
Concourse A part of Terminal 3 has a capacity of 19 million passengers and is connected to the two major public levels of Terminal 3 via an automated people mover (APM) in addition to the vehicular and baggage handling system utility tunnels for further transfer. The concourse opened on January 2, 2013. The building, which follows the characteristic shape of Concourse B, 924 m (3,031 ft) long, 91 m (299 ft) wide and 40 m (130 ft) high in the centre from the apron level, and accommodates 20 air bridge gates, of which 18 are capable of handling the Airbus A380-800. There is also 6 remote lounges for passengers departing on flights parked at 13 remote stands. The gates in concourse A are labelled A1- A24.
Concourse A under construction in 2012 before it opened in 2013
The concourse includes one 4 star hotel and one 5 star hotel, first and business class lounges, and duty-free areas. The total built-up area is 540,000 m 2 (5,800,000 sq ft). The concourse allows for multi-level boarding and boasts the largest first and business class lounges in the world. Each lounge has its own dedicated floor offering direct aircraft access from the lounges.
Concourse B is directly connected to terminal 3, and is dedicated exclusively to Emirates. The total built up area of the concourse itself is 675,000 m 2 (7,270,000 sq ft). The concourse is 945 m (3,100 ft) long, 90.8 m (298 ft) wide (at midpoint) and 49.5 m (162 ft) high. The terminal has 10 floors (4 basements, a ground floor, and 5 above floors). The building currently includes a multi-level structure for departures and arrivals and includes 32 gates, labelled B1- B32. The concourse has 26 air bridge gates and 5 boarding lounges for 14 remote stands that are for the Airbus A340 and Boeing 777 aircraft only. For transit passengers the concourse has 3 transfer areas, and 62 transfer desks.
The concourse also includes the Emirates first and Business class lounges and the Marhaba lounge. The First class lounge has a capacity of 1,800 passengers and a total area of 12,600 m 2 (136,000 sq ft). The Business class lounge has a capacity of 3,000 passengers, and a total area of 13,500 m 2 (145,000 sq ft). The Marhaba lounge, the smallest lounge at the concourse has a capacity of 300 passengers at a time.
The total retail area at the concourse is 120,000 m 2 (1,300,000 sq ft) completely operated by Dubai Duty Free, and the food court includes 18 restaurants. There are also 3 hotels in the concourse; a 5 star hotel, and a 4 star hotel.
There is a direct connection to Sheikh Rashid Terminal (Concourse C) located at the control tower structure through passenger walkways. There is also a 300-room hotel and health club including both five and four star rooms. Concourse B includes five aerobridges that are capable of handling the new Airbus A380. Emirates Airline continues to maintain a presence in Concourse C, operating 12 gates at the concourse as well as the Emirates First Class and Business Class Lounges.
The interior of Concourse B. Concourse A has a very similar design, however concourse B has a larger capacity of 28 million passengers compared to 19 million passengers for concourse A
Terminal 3 – Concourse B
Al Majalis VIP Pavilion and Dubai Executive Flight Terminal
The AL Majalis VIP pavilion, was exclusively built for the Dubai Royal Air Wing and opened on 1 July 2008. The entire facility is a 3,400 m 2 (37,000 sq ft) terminal, and includes a Royal Majlis, and an antenna farm. It also includes eight aircraft hangars with a total built up area of 69,598 m 2 (749,150 sq ft) and maintenance hangars for Boeing 747s and Airbus A380s and a 1,200 m 2 (13,000 sq ft) gatehouse for VIP service. In 2010 there were 47,213 customers, 13,162 movements, and in 2009 there were a total of 43,968 customers and 14,896 movements.
Dubai Royal Air Wing is the main airline operating from the VIP Pavilion
Executive Flight Services (EFS) caters to those passengers of high class or special importance that travel through Dubai International Airports. It is the largest dedicated business aviation terminal of its kind in the Middle East. It is located at the Dubai Airport Free Zone close to Dubai International's Terminal 2. It only caters to private flights exclusive to the terminal. Airlines operating from the terminal are expected to maintain a lounge. In 2010 EFS handled 7,889 aircraft movements and 25,177 passengers.
The centre itself is located close to Terminal 2, and includes a 5,500 m 2 (59,000 sq ft) two-storey main building, a 3,700 m 2 (40,000 sq ft) hangar, a 3,700 m 2 (40,000 sq ft) ramp area for aircraft parking, and a special VIP car park for long term parking. The centre also has its own immigration and customs sections, its own Dubai Duty Free outlet, a fully equipped business and conference centre, eight luxury private lounges and a limousine service between aircraft and the terminal.
The ramp area of the terminal can accommodate up to 22 small sized private jets, between 8 and 12 medium sized jets, or up to 4 large sized jets such as the Boeing Business Jet (BBJ), the Boeing 727 or the Airbus A319.
The facility makes EFC the largest dedicated business aviation terminal in the Middle East.
Cargo Mega Terminal
The cargo village at Dubai International Airport is one of the world's largest and most central cargo hubs, with most of the cargo for Asia and Africa coming through the facility. Forecasts in 2004 for cargo growth predicted that additional major cargo handling facilities were needed to satisfy demands. Plans were put in progress to construct the first stage of the cargo mega terminal, which by 2018 will have the ability to handle three million tons of freight. Phase 1 of the cargo mega terminal was completed by 2004 and the next phase of expansion was scheduled for completion in late 2007. Presently the airport has a cargo capacity of 2.1 million tonnes, and will be expanded to handle 3 million.
A Cathay Pacific Cargo Boeing 747 landing at the airport
An Emirates Boeing 777-300ER and Airbus A380 seen in the background
Dubai airport has constructed a flower centre to handle flower imports and exports, as Dubai is a major hub for the import and export of flowers and the airport required a specialist facility since these products need special conditions. The flower centre's first phase was completed in 2004 at a cost of $50 million.
The flower centre is not yet finished and construction will continue in another two phases. The centre will offer an enhanced level of automation over a five to seven year period for processing flower products. It will begin with a semi-automated system with manual sorting before eventually becoming fully automated.
The centre when completed and functioning will have a floor area of approximately 100,000 m² including different export chambers and offices. The handling capacity of the centre is expected to be more than 300,000 tonnes of product throughput per annum. The entire facility (with the exception of the offices) will be maintained at an ambient temperature of just 2 °C to 4 °C.
Dubai Airport has two parallel runways, both 4000m long. Runways, 12R/30L and 12L/30R, each 60 m (200 ft) wide. The runways are equipped with four sets of ILS to guide landing aircraft safely under very poor weather conditions. The runways were recently expanded to accommodate the Airbus A380. In 2009, it was announced that the airport installed a Category III landing system, allowing planes to land in low visibility conditions, such as fog. This system will be the first of its kind in the United Arab Emirates.
In 2013 Dubai Airports announced an 80-day runway refurbishment program which will start on 1 May 2014. The northern runway will be resurfaced while lighting upgrades and additional taxiways will be built on the southern runway to help boost its capacity. The southern runway will be closed from 1 May to 31 May 2014, while the northern runway will be closed from 31 May to 20 July 2014. Due to extra congestion on one runway, all freighter, charter and general aviation flights will be diverted to Al Maktoum International Airport.
Aircraft taxiing to runway 12L/30R
Accommodating the Airbus A380
With Dubai-based Emirates Airline being one of the launch customers for the Airbus A380 and also the largest customer, Dubai airport needed to expand its existing facilities to accommodate the very large aircraft. The Department of Civil Aviation spent $120 million in upgrading the two of its terminals and airport infrastructure, including enlarged gate holdrooms, new finger piers, enlarged runway, new airbridges and extended baggage belt carousels from the normal 70 to 90 m (230 to 300 ft).
Dubai airport also invested $3.5 billion into a new Concourse A, exclusively for handling Emirates Airline A380s. With the changes made, the airport does not expect embarking and disembarking passengers and baggage from the A380 to take longer than it does for Boeing 747-400s, which carry fewer passengers. On 16 July 2008, Dubai Airport unveiled the first of two specially-built gates capable of handling the aircraft. Costing $10 million, the gates will enable passengers to get on the upper cabin of the new 555-seater aircraft directly from the gate hold rooms. The hold rooms themselves have been enlarged to cater for the larger number of passengers flying the A380s. In addition to the 2 gates at Terminal 1, 5 more A380-capable gates were opened at concourse B on 14 October 2008. Concourse A opened on 2 January 2013.
The airport has over 26,000 m 2 (280,000 sq ft) of space spread between its three main terminals and includes many shopping and eating outlets. The Dubai duty-free shopping area in Terminal 2 covers 1,400 m 2 (15,000 sq ft) in departures and 50 m 2 (540 sq ft) arrivals. The 3,437 m 2 (37,000 sq ft) extension included a larger arrivals hall as well.
Extensive upgrading work on existing retail areas since 2004 in Terminals 1 and 2 has increased sales. Dubai Duty Free announced annual sales of Dhs5.9 billion (US$1.6 billion) in 2012, representing a 10 per cent increase on the previous year. In 2008, Dubai Duty Free doubled its retail space from 7,000 to 15,000 m 2 (75,000 to 160,000 sq ft) with the inauguration of the new Emirates Terminal 3 in October 2008. Dubai Duty Free recorded more than 23.5 million transactions in 2012. As of August 2009, Dubai Duty Free was the biggest single airport retail operation in the world ahead of London Heathrow and Seoul Incheon airports.
In addition to a wide array of duty-free shops and eating outlets, Dubai Airport has two open-air garden areas. Dubai Airport has numerous business centres located around the airport. Within the international transit area of the interconnected Terminals 1 and 2, internet and games facilities, prayer rooms, showers, spas, gym, swimming pool and three hotels are provided. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas or televisions showing news, movies and sports channels.
Ground handling services at Dubai International Airport has been provided by Dnata Ground Handling Services. Services include cargo ramp and technical support services to airlines at Dubai Airport.
Emirates Engineering, based in Dubai, operates the aircraft maintenance and engine test cell technical facilities at the airport. Emirates Engineering currently provides full support for the Emirates Airline fleet and all the other international operations at the airport.
Current facilities include:
Safety and security
In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and personal screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. Dubai Airport Police plans to introduce a biometric identification system for access into restricted areas.
In view of the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot, security screening checks have been stepped up on passengers and their hand-carry luggage, as well as checked-in luggage on flights bound for destinations in the United Kingdom and the United States from Dubai.
In early 2007, Dubai Airport introduced a new type of airport screening device which not only detected weapons, but also could screen the passenger for drugs in the blood. With the new system in place, travellers entering Dubai can be jailed for four years or more if found in possession (including in the bloodstream and the bottom of the shoes) of illegal drugs (even in quantities as small as 0.001 g (3.5 × 10 −5 oz)), including poppy seeds from bagels and prescription and over-the-counter medicines such as codeine . A senior Dubai judge was quoted on 11 February 2008, by the Dubai City News saying, "These laws help discourage anyone from carrying or using drugs. Even if the amount of illegal drugs found on someone is 0.05 grams, they will be found guilty. The penalty is a minimum four years. The message is clear – drugs will not be tolerated." A number of travellers have been held pending charge while Dubai authorities test their possessions, blood and urine for any trace of contraband.
As all passenger traffic out of the airport is international in nature, the three major terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.
Since there are international flights operating out from the airport, the terminals of the airport are equipped with immigration processing facilities and security scanning for all passengers including domestic, and regional passengers. Terminals 1, and 3 handle 95 per cent of the international flights, whilst Terminal 2 mainly caters to regional flights and international flights routed to other airports in Iran and Saudi Arabia. Emirates Airlines operate from only Terminal 3. Conversely, low cost carriers such as Flydubai operate flights out of terminal 2.
Passenger growth at the airport has been growing at an average rate of 18 per cent. The airport reached its capacity of 33 million passengers per annum by 2007, however this was still not enough to handle the growing over congestion at the airport. As 2013 the airport's capacity reached 75 million with the opening of concourse A and expansion of Terminal 2.
Passenger traffic for 2012 grew by 13.2 percent as 57.68 million passengers passed through Dubai International, compared to 50.98 during the corresponding period in 2011.
In 2012, India was DXB's biggest destination for passengers rising 7.4 per cent year-on-year to 7.34 million. Saudi Arabia also saw major growth, with passenger numbers rising 35 per cent to 3,557,502 in 2012. Saudi Arabia is now Dubai International's third-biggest country-specific market behind the UK. Doha remained the top city destination, recording 2,225,648 passengers, an 18 per cent increase in passengers compared to the previous year. London followed it with 2,009,660 passengers.
Fueled by high economic growth from Emirates, the airport handled 1,927,520 tonnes of air cargo in 2009, an increase of 5.6% over the 2008 fiscal year, making it the 11th-busiest airfreight hub in the world and the busiest in the Middle East.
The total freight handled between January and August in 2010 reached a total of 1,498,244 tonnes compared to 1,198,546 tonnes during the same period in 2009, up 25%. Cargo volumes grew an impressive 21.5 per cent to 198,543 tonnes in August compared to 163,427 tonnes during the same month in 2009 spurred by increased economic activity in Asia and other regional markets. It was the eleventh consecutive month of double-digit growth.
Terminals, airlines and destinations
The airport is connected by the road D 89. One of the longest intra-city roads, D 89 begins at the Deira Corniche and runs perpendicular to D 85 (Baniyas Road). From Deira, the road progresses south-eastward towards Dubai International Airport, intersecting with E 311 (Emirates Road) past the airport.
The airport is served by the Dubai Metro, which will operate 2 lines through the airport. The Red Line (Dubai Metro) has a station at Terminal 3, and at Terminal 1. The metro provides services between 0600 and 2215 everyday except Friday, when it operates between 1405 and 2315. These timings differ during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The stations are located in front of both terminals, and can be accessed directly from the arrivals areas. The Green Line will operate from August 2011, at another station in the Airport Free Zone, from which passengers can connect to Terminal 2.
Dubai Buses operated by RTA run a number of routes to the city but mainly Deira , and are available at the Airport Ground Transportation centre and the Arrivals at every terminal.
Passengers who need to transfer between Terminal 1 and 3 and Terminal 2 can use the inter-terminal shuttle bus service which operates frequently.
Bus stations are situated opposite both Terminal 1, 2, and 3. Local buses 4, 11, 15, 33 and 44 can be used to connect with Terminal 1 and 3, while bus 2 connects with Terminal 2. Dubai International Airport Buses provide air-conditioned transport into the city centre and over 80 hotels in the city.
Emirates offers a complimentary coach service, which operates 3 daily services to and from Al Ain, and 4 daily, to and from Abu Dhabi.
The airport is served by the Government owned Dubai Taxi Agency, which provides 24 hour service at the arrivals in every terminal.
Accidents and incidents
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The content above was published at Airports-Worldwide.com in 2014.
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