A geosynchronous orbit is an orbit around the Earth with an orbital period matching the Earth's sidereal rotation period. This synchronization means that for an observer at a fixed location on Earth, a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit returns to exactly the same place in the sky at exactly the same time each day. In principle, any orbit with a period equal to the Earth's rotational period is technically geosynchronous; however, the term is often used to refer to the special case of a geosynchronous orbit that is circular (or nearly circular) and at zero (or nearly zero) inclination, that is, directly above the equator. This is customarily called a geostationary orbit.
A semisynchronous orbit has an orbital period of 0.5 sidereal days, i.e. 11 h 58 min. Relative to the Earth's surface it has twice this period, and hence appears to go around the Earth once every day. Examples include the Molniya orbit and the orbits of the satellites in the Global Positioning System.
All geosynchronous orbits have a semi-major axis of 42,164 km (26,199 mi). In fact, orbits with the same period share the same semi-major axis: where a=semi-major axis, P = orbital period, μ = geocentric gravitational constant.
In the special case of a geostationary orbit, the ground track of a satellite is the equator. In the general case of a geosynchronous orbit with a non-zero inclination or eccentricity, the ground track is a more or less distorted figure-eight, returning to the same places once per solar day.
A circular geosynchronous orbit in the plane of the Earth's equator has a radius of approximately 42,164 km (from the center of the Earth). A satellite in such an orbit is at an altitude of approximately 35,786 kilometers above mean sea level. It will maintain the same position relative to the Earth's surface. If one could see a satellite in geostationary orbit, it would appear to hover at the same point in the sky, i.e., not exhibit diurnal motion, while one would see the Sun, Moon, and stars traverse the heavens behind it. This is sometimes called a Clarke orbit. Such orbits are useful for telecommunications satellites.
A perfect stable geostationary orbit is an ideal that can only be approximated. In practice the satellite will drift out of this orbit (because of perturbations such as the solar wind, radiation pressure, variations in the Earth's gravitational field, and the gravitational effect of the Moon and Sun), and thrusters are used to maintain the orbit in a process known as station-keeping.
Synchronous orbits around general astronomical objects
Synchronous orbits exist around all moons, planets, stars and black holes — unless they rotate so slowly that the orbit would be outside their Hill sphere or so fast that such an orbit would be inside the body. Most inner moons of planets have synchronous rotation, so their synchronous orbits are, in practice, limited to their leading and trailing (L4 and L5) Lagrange points, as well as the L1 and L2 Lagrange points, assuming they don't fall within the body of the moon. Objects with chaotic rotations (such as Hyperion) are also problematic, as their synchronous orbits keep changing unpredictably.
Other geosynchronous orbits
Elliptical orbits can be and are designed for communications satellites that keep the satellite within view of its assigned ground stations or receivers. A satellite in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit will appear to oscillate in the sky from the viewpoint of a ground station, tracing an analemma in the sky. Satellites in highly elliptical orbits must be tracked by steerable ground stations.
The Infrared Space Observatory was in a highly-elliptical geosynchronous orbit with apogee 70,600 km and perigee 1,000 km. It was controlled by two ground stations.
Theoretically an active geosynchronous orbit can be maintained if forces other than gravity are also used to maintain the orbit, such as a solar sail. Such a statite can be geosynchronous in an orbit different (higher, lower, more or less elliptical, or some other path) from the conic section orbit formed by a gravitational body.
Surveillance satellites use active geosynchronous orbits to maintain position and track above a fixed point on the Earth's surface. They are directed by controllers on the ground.
A further form of geosynchronous orbit is obtained by the theoretical space elevator in which one end of the structure is tethered to the ground, maintaining a longer orbital period than by gravity alone if under tension.
The acronym GEO can mean geosynchronous Earth orbit, geostationary Earth orbit or geostationary orbit.
The following orbits are special orbits that are also used to categorize orbits:
Author Arthur C. Clarke is credited with proposing the notion of using a geostationary orbit for communications satellites. The orbit is also known as the Clarke Orbit. Together, the collection of artificial satellites in these orbits is known as the Clarke Belt.
Geostationary satellites also carry international telephone traffic but they are being replaced by fiber optic cables in heavily populated areas and along the coasts of less developed regions, because of the greater bandwidth available and lower latency, due to the inherent disconcerting delay in communicating via a satellite in such a high orbit. It takes electromagnetic waves about a quarter of a second to travel from one end to the other of the link. Thus, two parties talking via satellite will be subject to about a half second delay in a round-trip message/response sequence.
Although many populated land locations on the planet now have terrestrial communications facilities (microwave, fiber-optic), even undersea, with more than sufficient capacity, satellite telephony and Internet access is still the only service available for many places in Africa, Latin America, and Asia, as well as isolated locations that have no terrestrial facilities, such as Canada's Arctic islands, Antarctica, the far reaches of Alaska and Greenland, and ships at sea.
Published - July 2009
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