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List of spaceflight records

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spaceflight_records

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.

The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965

The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965

First independent suborbital and orbital human spaceflight by country

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
USSR Vostok 1 Yuri Gagarin Vostok 3KA Vostok-K 12 April 1961 Orbital
USA Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7) Alan Shepard Mercury Spacecraft No.7 Mercury-Redstone 5 May 1961 Sub-orbital
USA Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7) John Glenn Mercury Spacecraft No.13 Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962 Orbital
China Shenzhou 5 Yang Liwei Shenzhou spacecraft Long March 2F 15 October 2003 Orbital

Human spaceflight firsts

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
  • Person to reach space
  • Person in orbit
  • Person to consume food in space
Gagarin in Sweden-2.jpg
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1 USSR 12 April 1961
  • Person to make suborbital flight
  • Person to land in a spacecraft after spaceflight (thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions)
  • Person to land in water (splashdown)
  • Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan Shepard Freedom 7 USA 5 May 1961
  • Person in space for over 24 hours
  • Multiple orbits during a spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2 USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land in a spacecraft after orbital flight John Glenn Friendship 7 USA 20 February 1962
  • Group flight
  • Adjacent orbits
  • Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications

Andrian Nikolayev

Pavel Popovich

Vostok 3

Vostok 4

USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
  • Woman in space
  • Civilian in space
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6 USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90 USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 kilometres (62 mi)) Joe Walker X-15 Flights 90 and 91 USA 22 August 1963
  • Three-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
  • Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
  • Manned spaceflight without pressurized spacesuits

Vladimir Komarov

Konstantin Feoktistov

Boris Yegorov

Voskhod 1 USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk

Berkut spacesuit at Air and Space - back removed.jpg
Alexei Leonov Voskhod 2 USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3 USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper

Faith 7

Gemini 5

USA

15 May 1963 –
16 May 1963

21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965

Persons to spend one week in space

Gordon Cooper

Pete Conrad

Gemini 5 USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
  • Space rendezvous (orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
  • Four people in space at the same time

Frank Borman, Jim Lovell

Walter Schirra, Thomas Stafford

Gemini 7

Gemini 6A

USA 15 Dec. 1965 –
16 Dec. 1965
Space docking

Gemini 8 docking.jpg

Neil Armstrong

David Scott

Gemini 8 and Agena USA 16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvous

John W. Young

Michael Collins

Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8 USA

19 July 1966

20 July 1966

Spaceflight fatality (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1 USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflights Walter Schirra

Mercury - Atlas 8

Gemini 6A

Apollo 7

USA 22 October 1968
  • Persons to leave low Earth orbit (LEO)
  • Persons to enter lunar orbit
  • Persons to enter the gravitational influence of another celestial body
Apollo8 Prime Crew2.jpg

Frank Borman

Jim Lovell

Bill Anders

Apollo 8 USA 24 Dec. 1968 –
25 Dec. 1968
  • Space docking of two manned spacecraft
  • Dual spacewalk
  • Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)

Vladimir Shatalov

Boris Volynov

Aleksei Yeliseyev

Yevgeny Khrunov

Soyuz 4

Soyuz 5

USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10 USA 22 May 1969
  • Moon landing
  • Planetary surface EVA
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg

Neil Armstrong

Buzz Aldrin

Apollo 11 USA 20 July 1969
Five people in space at the same time

Georgi Shonin, Valeri Kubasov

Anatoly Filipchenko, Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Gorbatko

Soyuz 6

Soyuz 7

USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
  • Triple spaceflight
  • Seven people in space at the same time

Shonin, Kubasov

Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko

Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev

Soyuz 6

Soyuz 7

Soyuz 8

USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell

Gemini 7

Gemini 12

Apollo 8

Apollo 13

USA 17 April 1970
  • Person to fly two lunar flights
  • Person to complete two flights beyond low Earth orbit
James A. Lovell

Apollo 8

Apollo 13

USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • Persons to fly an actual free-return trajectory around a celestial body

James A. Lovell

Jack Swigert

Fred Haise

Apollo 13

USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • People to spend two weeks in space
  • Night launch

Andrian Nikolayev

Vitali Seva-styanov

Soyuz 9 USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of sight of their spacecraft

Alan Shepard

Edgar Mitchell

Apollo 14 USA 6 February 1971
  • Docking with space station (soft dock)
  • Night landing

Vladimir Shatalov

Aleksei Yeliseyev

Nikolai Rukavish- nikov

Soyuz 10

Salyut 1

USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station

Salyut 4 and Soyuz drawing.svg

Georgi Dobrovolski

Viktor Patsayev

Vladislav Volkov

Soyuz 11

Salyut 1

USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalities

Georgi Dobrovolski

Viktor Patsayev

Vladislav Volkov

Soyuz 11 USSR 29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth
Scott on the Rover – GPN-2000-001306

Dave Scott

Jim Irwin

Apollo 15 USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
EVA outside low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15 USA 5 August 1971
Person to be in lunar orbit twice (during separate lunar expeditions) John W. Young

Apollo 10

Apollo 16

USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks

Pete Conrad

Joseph Kerwin

Paul Weitz

Skylab 2 USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks

Alan Bean

Jack Lousma

Owen Garriott

Skylab 3 USA 28 July 1973 –
25 Sep. 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks

Gerald Carr

William Pogue

Edward Gibson

Skylab 4 USA 16 Nov. 1973 –
8 February 1974
  • Spaceflight aborted during liftoff (at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
  • Re-entry with 20g acceleration (emergency)
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a USSR 5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhani- bekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1crew USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29 - Soyuz 31 USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 Nov. 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35 - Soyuz 37 USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft

John W. Young

Robert L. Crippen

STS-1 USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young

Gemini

Apollo

Lunar Module

STS-1

USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young

Gemini 3

Gemini 10

Apollo 10

Apollo 16

STS-1

USA 14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft

Vance Brand

Robert F. Overmyer

Joseph P. Allen

William B. Lenoir

STS-5 USA 11 Nov. 1982 –
16 Nov. 1982
Five-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft

Robert L. Crippen

Frederick H. Hauck

John M. Fabian

Sally K. Ride

Norman E. Thagard

STS-7 USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft

John W. Young, Brewster H. Shaw, Owen K. Garriott, Robert A. Parker, Byron K. Lichtenberg – USA

Ulf Merbold – Germany (European Space Agency)

STS-9

USA

West Germany

28 Nov. 1983 –
8 Dec. 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young

Gemini 3

Gemini 10

Apollo 10

Apollo 16

STS-1

STS-9

USA 8 Dec. 1983
Untethered spacewalk

EVAtion - GPN-2000-001087.jpg
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B USA 7 February 1984
Eight people in space at the same time (no docking)

Oleg Atkov, Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov – USSR

Vance D. Brand, Robert L. Gibson, Bruce McCandless II, Ronald McNair, Robert L. Stewart – USA

Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B

USSR

USA

8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
11 people in space at the same time (no docking)

Oleg Atkov, Leonid D. Kizim, Yury Malyshev, Vladimir Solovyov, Gennady Strekalov – USSR

Robert L. Crippen, Terry J. Hart, George Nelson, Francis Scobee, James van Hoften – USA

Rakesh Sharma – India

STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11

USSR

USA

India

6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7 USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by a woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12 USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks (7 months) Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11 USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft

STS41G-19-006.jpg

Robert L. Crippen, Jon A. McBride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, David C. Leestma, Paul D. Scully-Power – USA

Marc Garneau – Canada

STS-41-G

USA

Canada

5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Two women in space at the same time Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7 USSR 17 Sep. 1985 –
26 Sep. 1985
Eight-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft

STS 61-A crew portrait onboard Challenger middeck.jpg

Henry W. Hartsfield, Steven R. Nagel, Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Buchli, Guion S. Bluford – USA

Reinhard Furrer, Ernst Messerschmid – West Germany

Wubbo Ockels – Netherlands (European Space Agency)

STS-61-A

USA

West Germany

Nether-lands

30 October 1985 –
6 Nov. 1985
Fatalities during launch

Francis «Dick» Scobee

Michael J. Smith

Ellison Onizuka

Judith Resnik

Ronald McNair

Sharon Christa McAuliffe

Gregory Jarvis

STS-51-L USA 28 January 1986
  • Space station-to-space station flight
  • Space station-to-space station return flight
  • Expedition on two space stations

Leonid Kizim

Vladimir Solovyov

Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir USSR 21 Dec. 1987 –
29 Dec. 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks (one year) Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4 - Soyuz TM-6 USSR 21 Dec. 1987 –
21 Dec. 1988
12 people in space at the same time (no docking)

Shuttle: Vance Brand, Samuel Durrance, Guy S. Gardner, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Ronald Parise, Robert A. Parker – USA

Mir: Gennady Manakov, Gennady Strekalov – Russia

Soyuz and Soyuz/Mir:

  • Musa Manarov, Viktor Afanasyev – Russia
  • Toyohiro Akiyama – Japan
  • STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10 - Soyuz TM-11

    USSR

    USA

    Japan

    2 Dec. 1990 –
    10 Dec. 1990
    Three women in space at the same time Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40 USA 5 June 1991 –
    14 June 1991
    Three-person spacewalk

    Three Crew Members Capture Intelsat VI - GPN-2000-001035.jpg

    Pierre J. Thuot

    Richard J. Hieb

    Thomas D. Akers

    STS-49 USA 13 May 1992
    13 people in space at the same time (no docking)

    Shuttle: Steve Oswald, William Gregory, John Grunsfeld, Wendy Lawrence, Tammy Jernigan, Sam Durrance, Ron Parise – USA

    Mir: Aleksandr Viktorenko, Yelena Kondakova, Valeriy Polyakov – Russia

    Soyuz/Mir:

  • Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady Strekalov –Russia
  • Norman E. Thagard – USA
  • STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21

    USA

    Russia

    14 March 1995 –
    18 March 1995
    Ten people in a single spacecraft (docking)

    Crewmembers of STS-71, Mir-18 and Mir-19 Pose for Inflight Picture - GPN-2002-000061 rotated.jpg

    Robert L. Gibson, Charles J. Precourt, Ellen S. Baker, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gregory J. Harbaugh Norman E. Thagard – USA

    Anatoly Solovyev, Nikolai Budarin, Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady Strekalov – Russia

    STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21

    USA

    Russia

    29 June 1995 –
    4 July 1995
    Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1

    USA

    Russia

    April 28, 2001 –
    May 6, 2001
    Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross

    STS-61B

    STS-27

    STS-37

    STS-55

    STS-74

    STS-88

    STS-110

    USA 19 April 2002
    Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)

    Kluft-photo-SS1-landing-June-2004-Img 1406c.jpg
    Mike Melvill Space Ship One flight 15P USA 21 June 2004
    13 people in a single spacecraft (docking)

    STS-127 group picture 03.jpg

    Michael Barratt, Mark L. Polansky, Douglas G. Hurley, Christopher J. Cassidy, Thomas H. Marshburn, David Wolf, Timothy Kopra – USA

    Gennady Padalka, Roman Romanenko – Russia

    Robert Thirsk, Julie Payette – Canada

    Frank De Winne – Belgium (European Space Agency)

    Koichi Wakata – Japan

    ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127

    USA

    Russia

    Canada

    Belgium

    Japan

    17 July 2009
    Four women in space at the same time

    STS-131 and Expedition 23 Group Portrait.jpg

    Shuttle:

  • Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson – USA
  • Naoko Yamazaki – Japan
  • ISS: Tracy Caldwell Dyson – USA

    STS-131

    ISS Expedition 23

    USA

    Japan

    5 April 2010 –
    20 April 2010
    Six spacecraft docked to a space station

    ISS: Expedition 56

    Dragon-15, Cygnus-9, Soyuz MS-08, Soyuz MS-09, Progress MS-08, Progress MS-09

    USA

    Russia

    9 July 2018

    Most spaceflights

    • 7 spaceflights
      • Jerry L. Ross – USA
      • Franklin Chang Díaz – Costa Rica/USA*
    • 6 spaceflights
      • John W. Young – USA (While Young has made six spaceflights, he was launched into orbit seven times if his Moon ascent on Apollo 16 is counted.)
      • Story Musgrave – USA
      • Curtis Brown – USA
      • James Wetherbee – USA
      • Michael Foale – United Kingdom/USA dual citizen
      • Sergei Krikalev – Soviet Union/Russia
      • Yuri Malenchenko – Russia

    Duration records

    Total human spaceflight time by country

    Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation
    Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+  
    TOTAL 557 1259 3 53242.21  
    Russia
    Soviet Union
    123 270 1 27670.59
    United States 341 852 1 20324.27
    39 64 2969.50
    Japan 12 20 1354.76
    Germany 11 16 856.71
    Italy 7 12 765.92
    France 10 18 628.92
    Canada 10 18 1 576.88
    Netherlands 2 3 210.69
    Belgium 2 3 207.65
    United Kingdom 2 2 193.81
    China 11 14 165.35
    Switzerland 1 4 42.50
    Sweden 1 2 26.73
    Spain 1 2 18.78
    Israel 1 1 15.93
    Ukraine 1 1 15.69
    Bulgaria 2 2 11.80
    South Korea 1 1 10.88
    Malaysia 1 1 10.88
    South Africa 1 1 9.89
    Brazil 1 1 9.89
    Denmark 1 1 9.84
    Kazakhstan 1 1 9.84
    Afghanistan 1 1 8.85
    Syria 1 1 7.96
    Czechoslovakia 1 1 7.93
    Austria 1 1 7.93
    Poland 1 1 7.92
    Slovakia 1 1 7.91
    India 1 1 7.90
    Hungary 1 1 7.86
    Cuba 1 1 7.86
    Mongolia 1 1 7.86
    Vietnam 1 1 7.86
    Romania 1 1 7.86
    Saudi Arabia 1 1 7.07
    Mexico 1 1 6.88
    Astronauts currently in space:
    David Saint-Jacques
    Anne Charlotte «Annimal» McClain
    Oleg Dmitriyevich Kononenko
    Crew Vehicles currently in space:
    Soyuz MS-11
    Table data accurate as of 2019-02-12 05:05 UTC
    * includes those in orbit at time table was updated
    +TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de — see table references).

    Most time in space

    Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, who has spent 878 days in space over five missions, became the record holder for the most time spent in space when he surpassed, on 28 June 2015, the record of cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes (about 2.2 years) in space over the span of six spaceflights on Soyuz, the Space Shuttle, Mir, and the International Space Station. Yuri Malenchenko is currently in second place, having spent 828 days in space on six spaceflights.

    The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 20 Dec. 2018.

    Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
    1 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Retired Russia
    2 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Retired Russia
    3 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    4 Alexandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Active Russia
    5 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    6 Valeriy Polyakov 678.690 2 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    7 Fyodor Yurchikhin 672.860 5 Active Russia
    8 Peggy A. Whitson 665.932 3 Retired United States
    9 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    10 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    11 Yury Usachev 552.773 4 Retired Russia
    12 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Retired Russia
    13 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Active Russia
    14 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired Soviet Union (Azerbaijan)
    15 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Active United States
    16 Anton Shkaplerov 533.230 3 Active Russia
    17 Oleg Kononenko 533.000 3 Active Russia
    18 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 3 Retired Russia
    19 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Retired Russia
    20 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired United States
    21 Mikhail Borisovich Korniyenko 516.417 2 Retired Russia
    22 Alexander Viktorenko 489.066 4 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    23 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired Russia
    24 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired Soviet Union
    25 Alexander Volkov 391.495 3 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    26 Yuri I. Onufrienko 389.282 2 Retired Russia
    27 Vladimir G. Titov 387.036 4 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    28 Vasili Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired Russia
    29 Valery G. Korzun 381.653 2 Retired Russia
    30 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active United States
    31 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased Soviet Union
    32 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired United States / United Kingdom
    33 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased Soviet Union / Russia
    34 Valeri Ryumin 371.725 4 Retired Soviet Union / Russia
    35 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active United States
    36 Oleg Artemyev 365.962 2 Active Russia
    37 Alexander Gerst 362.076 2 Active Germany
    38 Vladimir Solovyov 361.952 2 Retired Soviet Union
    39 Thomas Reiter 350.239 2 Retired Germany
    40 Koichi Wakata 347.356 4 Active Japan
    41 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov 345.267 2 Active Russia
    42 Talgat Musabayev 341.408 3 Retired Russia
    43 Oleg Novitskiy 340.419 2 Active Russia
    44 Andrei Borisenko 337.377 2 Active Russia
    45 Maksim Surayev 334.508 2 Retired Russia
    46 Alexander Misurkin 334.468 2 Active Russia
    47 Roman Romanenko 333.459 2 Retired Russia
    48 Vladimir Lyakhov 333.324 3 Deceased Soviet Union
    49 Oleg Skripochka 331.521 2 Active Russia
    50 Aleksandr Samokutyayev 331.474 2 Retired Russia

    Ten longest human spaceflights

    # Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
    1 437.7 days Valeri Polyakov Russia 1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir
    2 379.6 days Sergei Avdeyev Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir
    3 365.0 days
    • Vladimir Titov
    • Musa Manarov
    Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir
    4 340.4 days
    • Mikhail Kornienko
    • Scott Kelly
    • Russia
    • United States
    2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station,
    ISS year long mission
    5 326.5 days Yury Romanenko Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir
    6 311.8 days Sergei Krikalev Soviet Union/Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir
    7 289.2 days Peggy Whitson United States 2016-11-17 (Soyuz MS-03) 2017-09-03 (Soyuz MS-04) International Space Station
    8 240.9 days Valeri Polyakov Soviet Union 1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6) 1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7) Mir
    9 237.0 days
    • Leonid Kizim
    • Vladimir Solovyov
    • Oleg Atkov
    Soviet Union 1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10) 1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11) Salyut 7
    10 215.4 days
    • Mikhail Tyurin
    • Michael López-Alegría
    • Russia
    • United States
    2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9) 2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9) International Space Station

    Longest single flight by a woman

    NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson holds the record for the longest single spaceflight by a woman when she surpassed Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti’s 199 days, 16 hours during Expedition 52 in 2017. She returned to Earth in Sep. 2017, having spent 289 days, 5 hours and 1 minute in space. In third place is American astronaut Sunita Williams with 195 days on the ISS, where she was a member of Expedition 14/Expedition 15 (2006–2007).

    Longest continuous occupation of space

    An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000, when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later it docked with the International Space Station.Since then space has been continuously occupied for 18 years, 168 days.

    Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraft

    The International Space Station has been continuously occupied since 2 Nov. 2000 (18 years, 166 days). It broke the record of 9 years and 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.

    Longest solo flight

    Valery Bykovsky flew solo for 4 days, 23 hours in Vostok 5 from 14 to 19 June 1963. The flight set a space endurance record which was broken in 1965 by the (non-solo) Gemini 5 flight. The Apollo program included long solo spaceflight, and during the Apollo 16 mission, T. K. Mattingly orbited solo around the Moon for more than 3 days and 9 hours.

    Longest time on the lunar surface

    Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes and 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 Dec. 1972. They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds (as commanders were always the first one out of the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan’s EVA time was slightly longer).

    Longest time in lunar orbit

    Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours); however, for the solo portion of that flight around the Moon, T. K. Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans’ solo duration.

    Speed and altitude records

    Farthest humans from Earth

    The Apollo 13 crew (Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert), while passing over the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth. This record-breaking distance was reached at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.

    Highest altitude for manned non-lunar mission

    Gemini 11 crew Charles Conrad, Jr. and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. fired their Agena Target Vehicle rocket engine on 14 Sep. 1966, at 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff and achieved a record apogee altitude of 739.2 nautical miles (1,369.0 km).

    Fastest

    The Apollo 10 crew (Thomas Stafford, John W. Young and Eugene Cernan) achieved the highest speed relative to Earth ever attained by humans: 39,897 kilometers per hour (11.082 kilometers per second or 24,791 miles per hour, approximately 32 times the speed of sound and 0.00037% of the speed of light). The record was set 26 May 1969.

    Age records

    John Glenn, 14 April 1998

    John Glenn, 14 April 1998

    Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)

    Joe Walker (born 20 February 1921), on X-15 Flight 90 on 19 July 1963.

    Earliest-born to reach space (orbital flight)

    • Man – Georgy Beregovoy (born 15 April 1921), on Soyuz 3 on 26 October 1968.
    • Woman – Valentina Tereshkova (born 6 March 1937), on Vostok 6 on 16–19 June 1963.

    Youngest (age during spaceflight)

    • Man – Gherman Titov (aged 25 years), on Vostok 2 on 6 August 1961.
    • Woman – Valentina Tereshkova (aged 26 years), on Vostok 6 on 16–19 June 1963.

    Oldest (age during spaceflight)

    • Man – John Glenn (aged 77), on STS-95 on 29 October 1998.
    • Woman – Peggy Whitson (aged 56), on Soyuz MS-03 on 17 Nov. 2016. She turned 57 on 9 February 2017, while still in space.

    Spacewalk records

    Most spacewalks (number and duration)

    Both of these are the record for the largest total number of spacewalks by a male and a female, and the most cumulative time spent on spacewalks by a male and a female.

    • Man – Anatoly Solovyev, 16 spacewalks for a total time of 82 hours, 21 minutes.
    • Woman – Peggy Whitson, 10 spacewalks for a total time of 60 hours, 21 minutes.

    Most spacewalks during a single mission

    • 7: Anatoly Solovyev, during the 24th Expedition on the Soviet/Russian space station Mir, in 1997–98. (Two were internal «spacewalks» inside a depressurized module.)
    • 6: Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov, the third crew on the Soviet space station Salyut 7.

    Longest single spacewalk

    • 8 hrs 56 min, by James Voss and Susan Helms, 11 March 2001 on an ISS assembly mission during Shuttle mission STS-102

    Animal records

    First living organisms in space

    The first living organisms of any kind to enter space in a planned way were fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (109 km). They were also the first animals to safely return from space.

    First animal in orbit

    Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 Nov. 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka became the first canines to safely return to Earth from orbit on 19 August 1960.

    Longest canine single flight

    Soviet space dogs Veterok (Ветерок, «Light Wind») and Ugolyok (Уголёк, «Ember») were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

    First animals beyond low-Earth orbit

    An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms launched with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Soviet Zond 5 spacecraft on 15 Sep. 1968. It was launched by a Proton-K rocket. The capsule came within 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of the Moon and later successfully returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the Moon.

    Notable unmanned spaceflights

    In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
    Earth MW 18014 (A-4 (V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight). Germany 20 June 1944
    Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. USA 20 February 1947
    Earth R-1V First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. USSR 22 July 1951
    Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit. USSR 4 October 1957
    Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika the dog. USSR 3 Nov. 1957
    Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit, in addition to its upper launch stage. Expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964. USA 17 March 1958
    Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the Moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi) from Earth. USA 11 October 1958
    Earth Jupiter AM-13 First monkey in space, Gordo, a squirrel monkey. USA 13 Dec. 1958
    Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to achieve Earth’s escape velocity. USSR 4 January 1959
    Moon Luna 1 First flyby. Distance of 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi). USSR 4 January 1959
    Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. USSR 4 January 1959
    Moon Luna 2 First impact. USSR 14 Sep. 1959
    Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side. USSR 7 October 1959
    Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit. USA 11 August 1960
    Earth Korabl - Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit. USSR 19 August 1960
    Venus Venera 1 First flyby. Distance of 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) (lost communication contact before). USSR 19 May 1961
    Moon Ranger 4 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon. USA 26 April 1962
    Earth Alouette 1 First satellite designed and constructed by a country other than the USA or USSR (the British satellite Ariel 1, launched five months earlier, was designed and constructed by the USA). Canada 29 Sep. 1962
    Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby. Distance of 34,762 kilometres (21,600 mi) (with communication contact). USA 14 Dec. 1962
    Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use (50 years as of 2015). USA 6 May 1965
    Mars Mariner 4 First flyby and first planetary imaging. Distance of 9,846 kilometres (6,118 mi). USA 14 July 1965
    Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the USA or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets). France 26 Nov. 1965
    Moon Luna 9 First soft landing and first pictures from the lunar surface. USSR 3 February 1966
    Venus Venera 3 First impact. USSR 1 March 1966
    Moon Luna 10 First orbiter. USSR 3 April 1966
    Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of unmanned spacecraft. USSR 30 October 1967
    Moon Zond 5
    • First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
    • First animals to circle the Moon.
    USSR 15 Sep. 1968
    Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return. USSR 24 Sep. 1970
    Moon Luna 17 First automated roving vehicle, Lunokhod 1. USSR 17 Nov. 1970
    Venus Venera 7 First soft landing. USSR 15 Dec. 1970
    Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter. USA 14 Nov. 1971
    Mars Mars 2 First impact. USSR 27 Nov. 1971
    Mars Mars 3 First soft landing. Maintained telemetry signal for 20 seconds before transmissions ceased. USSR 2 Dec. 1971
    Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to achieve the Sun’s escape velocity. USA 3 March 1972
    Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby. Distance of 132,000 kilometres (82,000 mi). USA 4 Dec. 1973
    Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby. Distance of 703 kilometres (437 mi). USA 29 March 1974
    Venus Venera 9
    • First orbiter.
    • First surface-level imaging of another planet.
    USSR 22 October 1975
    Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars. USA 20 July 1976
    Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby. Distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi). USA 1 Sep. 1979
    Venus Venera 13 First sound recording made on another planet. USSR 1 March 1982
    Trans - Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the Sun. USA 13 June 1983
    Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe. USSR 11 June 1985
    Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through a comet tail (no pictures). Distance of 7,800 kilometres (4,800 mi). USA 11 Sep. 1985
    Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi). USA 24 January 1986
    Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby (with pictures returned). Distance of 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi). USSR 6 March 1986
    Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing). USSR 15 Nov. 1988
    Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby. Distance of 860 kilometres (530 mi). USSR 21 February 1989
    Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi). USA 25 August 1989
    951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby. Distance of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi). USA 29 October 1991
    Jupiter Galileo probe First impact. USA 7 Dec. 1995
    Jupiter Galileo First orbiter. USA 8 Dec. 1995
    Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle, Sojourner. USA 4 July 1997
    433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter. USA 14 February 2000
    433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing. USA 12 February 2001
    Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter.

    ESA

    USA

    1 July 2004
    Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon. USA 8 Sep. 2004
    Titan Huygens probe First soft landing.

    ESA

    USA

    14 January 2005
    Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact. USA 4 July 2005
    25143 Itokawa Hayabusa
    • First asteroid ascent.
    • First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
    Japan 19 Nov. 2005
    81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet. USA 15 January 2006
    Earth Voyager 1
    • Farthest distance from Earth.
    • Farthest distance from the Sun (20.479 billion km).
    USA As of Nov. 2016
    Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest continually operating space probe (since August 1977). USA As of 2015
    Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail. Japan Set sail on 10 June 2010
    25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from an asteroid. Japan 13 June 2010
    Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter. USA 17 March 2011
    Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Chang’e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit. China 25 August 2011
    International Space Station SpaceX Dragon First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station. SpaceX 25 May 2012
    Interstellar medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the heliopause, thereby exiting the heliosphere and entering interstellar space. USA 25 August 2012
    4179 Toutatis Chang’e 2
    • First object to reach an asteroid directly from a Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
    • First probe to explore both the Moon and an asteroid.
    China 13 Dec. 2012
    67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter. ESA 6 August 2014
    67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing. ESA 12 Nov. 2014
    Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter. USA 6 March 2015
    Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world (26.219 miles (42.195 km), marathon-length). USA 23 March 2015
    Mercury MESSENGER First impact. USA 30 April 2015
    Pluto New Horizons
    • First flyby of Pluto, Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx.
    • First up-close images of the Pluto system and of Pluto and Charon’s surfaces.
    • First to explore the Kuiper belt.
    USA 14 July 2015
    All 9 planets in the pre-IAU redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecrafts including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes explore all nine planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System. USA 14 July 2015
    Earth Juno Fastest man-made object relative to Earth (c. 265,000 kilometres per hour (165,000 mph)). USA 4 July 2016
    Earth Falcon 9 First re-flight of orbital class rocket. SpaceX 30 March 2017
    Earth

    Falcon 9

    H-IIA-202

    Shortest period between orbital launches (launched 72 seconds apart).

    USA

    Japan

    23 Dec. 2017
    Sun

    Parker Solar Probe

    Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the Sun: 95.3 km/s (343,112 km/h; 213,200 mph).Closest ever approach to the Sun: distance of 0.16 AU (24,000,000 kilometres (15,000,000 mi)). Spacecraft will continue to lower its perihelion by multiple Venus gravity assists until its closest approach in 2024, which is expected to bring the probe within 9.86 solar radii (6,900,000 km; 4,300,000 mi) of the Sun’s surface at a velocity of 191.7 km/s (690,000 km/h; 430,000 mph), by which point it will have become the fastest object in the Solar System apart from Comets (overtaking asteroid 2005 HC4).

    USA

    5 Nov. 2018
    Moon Chang’e 4 First soft landing at the far side of the Moon. China 3 January 2019


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    Published in April 2019.












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