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Sikorsky H-34

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikorsky_S-58

Sikorsky H-34/S-58
Role Helicopter
Manufacturer Sikorsky Aircraft
First flight 8 March 1954.
Primary users United States Army
United States Navy
United States Marines
Developed from H-19 Chickasaw
Variants Westland Wessex

UH-34Ds of the US Marines
UH-34Ds of the US Marines

Sikorsky H-34 in West German Army markings
Sikorsky H-34 in West German Army markings

Civil S-58T' powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 turbine twin pack
Civil S-58T' powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 turbine twin pack

Civil S-58T fire fighting with a Bambi bucket
Civil S-58T fire fighting with a Bambi bucket

An S-58T helitack shuttle on the Bicy Complex Fire in the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida
An S-58T helitack shuttle on the Bicy Complex Fire in the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida

The Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw (also known as the S-58) was a military helicopter originally designed by American aircraft manufacturer Sikorsky for the United States Navy for service in the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) role.

Sikorsky H-34s have served on every continent with the armed forces of twenty-five countries - from combat in Algeria, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and throughout southeast Asia, to saving flood victims, recovering astronauts, fighting fires, and carrying presidents.

Development

The Sikorsky S-58 was developed from the Sikorsky's UH-19 Chickasaw. The aircraft first flew on 8 March 1954. It was initially designated HSS-1 Seabat (in its anti-submarine configuration) and HUS-1 Seahorse (in its utility transport configuration) under the U.S. Navy designation system. Under the US Army's system, also used by the fledgling US Air Force, the helicopter was designated H-34. The U.S/ Army applied the name Choctaw to the helicopter. In 1962, under the new unified system, the Seabat was redesignated SH-34, the Seahorse as the UH-34, and the Choctaw as the CH-34.

Roles included utility transport, anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, and VIP transport. In it standard configuration transport versions could carry 12 to 16 troops, or eight stretcher cases if utilized in the MedEvac role, while VIP transports carried significantly fewer people in significantly greater comfort.

A total of 135 H-34s were built in the U.S. and assembled by Sud-Aviation in France, 166 were produced under licence in France by Sud-Aviation for the French Air Force, Navy and Army Aviation (ALAT).

The CH-34 was also built and developed under license from 1958 in the United Kingdom by Westland Aircraft as the turbine engined Wessex which was used by the Royal Navy. The RN Wessex was fitted out with weapons and ASW equipment for use in an antisubmarine role. The RAF used the Wessex, with turboshaft engines, as an air/sea rescue helicopter and as troop transporter. Wessexes were also exported to other countries and produced for civilian use.

Operational history

The U.S. Coast Guard flew the H-34 helicopter from 1959 to 1962.

In 1955, the U. S. Marine Corps received its first HUS-1s as an interim type until the HR2S (later H-37) entered squadron service. However, the HUS lasted far longer in USMC service, and in much greater numbers, than the HR2S ever did. Ultimately the Marine Corps took delivery of 515 UH-34Ds. From the late 1950s until the CH-46 entered service in 1965, the UH-34 operated as the mainstay of Marine Corps helicopter units.

Vietnam

French evaluations on the reported ground fire vulnerabilities of the CH-34 may have influenced the U.S. Army's decision to deploy the CH-21 Shawnee to Vietnam instead of the CH-34, pending the introduction into widespread service of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. US Army H-34s did not participate in Vietnam, and did not fly in the assault helicopter role, however a quantity were supplied to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. These saw little use due lack of spare parts and maintenance.

The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) continued to use the H-34 pattern even after the U.S. Army had phased it out. Even after the USMC adopted their own version of the UH-1, the UH-1E, the CH-34s continued to be used up to and for a period after the Tet Offensive in 1968.

Its higher availability and reliability due to its simplicity compared to the newer helicopters led Marines to ask for it by name. The phrases "give me a HUS", "get me a HUS" and "cut me a HUS" entered the USMC vernacular, being used even after the type was no longer in use to mean "help me out".

U.S. Marine Corps H-34s were also among the first gunship helicopters trialled in theatre, being fitted with the Temporary Kit-1 (TK-1), comprising two M60C machine guns and two 19 shot 2.75 inch rocket pods. The operations were met with mixed enthusiasm, and the armed H-34s, known as "Stingers" were quickly phased out. The TK-1 kit would form the basis of the TK-2 kit used on the UH-1E helicopters of the USMC.

In August 1969, the last Marine UH-34D in Vietnam was retired from HMM-362 at Hue Phu Bai. During that period, enemy action and accidents downed 134 helicopters. Most of the twenty surviving CH-34 helicopters were turned over to the South Vietnamese during the course of the war, though a few were ultimately reclaimed by the Army prior to the final collapse of the Saigon Government.

Pilots of H-34s in Vietnam discovered that some of the design's innovative features carried penalties. The high cockpit made it an obvious target, and the drive shaft created a partition that made it difficult for crew chiefs to come to the aid of the cockpit crew if they became injured. The H-34's magnesium skin resulted in very intense fires, and contributed to significant corrosion problems. The airframe was also too weak to support most of the weapon systems that allowed the UH-1s to become an effective ad-hoc gunship. Nonetheless, the H-34 demonstrated an ability to sustain a substantial amount of combat damage and still return home.

In the late 1950s, Air America, a CIA-created airline, began flying UH-34Ds in Laos, manned by crews on leave from the Marine Corps. When the last military UH-34 left Vietnam, Air America was still in operation with the type, including upgraded S-58Ts.

Post-Vietnam War

The CH-34 Choctaw remained in service with US Army aviation units well into the late 1960s, and was standard equipment in Army Reserve and Army National Guard aviation units, until replaced by the UH-1 Iroquois utility helicopter. Indeed, the last Choctaw was not officially retired until the early 1970s. Sikorsky production ceased in 1970, with 1,800 built.

Foreign Service

France

The French Navy adopted the SH-34 Seabat in 1955, using the helicopter during the Algerian War of 1956-62. Beginning in 1956, the H-34 saw its introduction into combat during intensive operations with the French in Algeria. The French Army had earlier modified the H-19 and Piasecki H-21 with rockets and machine guns for use in a ground attack role; the French Navy performed the same modification to the CH-34 which was developed under the name Pirate and was extensively used in counter-insurgency airborne operations. The H-19 proved underpowered for the ground attack role, and the H-21 lacked mobility. The H-34 was able to carry more armament, including a MG151 20 mm cannon firing from the cabin door, two M2 .50 cal. machine guns firing from the cabin windows to port, and batteries of 37- or 68-mm rockets. 73 mm rockets and additional machine guns were also employed on some versions. Official evaluations at the time had indicated that the CH-21 was more likely to survive multiple hits by ground fire than was the CH-34; this was assumed to be a consequence of the location and construction of the CH-34's fuel tanks.

France bought 134 Choctaws in parts from the United States and assembled by Sud-Aviation. A further 166 were manufactured later locally for the French Army, Navy and Air force, these again produced by Sud-Aviation.

United Kingdom

The helicopter was also built and developed under license from 1958 in the United Kingdom by Westland Aircraft under the name "Wessex". The Royal Navy was the primary user for the Anti-Submarine Warfare role. The RAF and Royal Marines used the Wessex, with turboshaft engines, as an air/sea rescue helicopter and as troop transporter.

A crisis arose in 1962 as Brunei was not included in the newly formed Federation of Malaya and Indonesia threatened confrontation, including a continuation of the effort started by the North Kalimantan Liberation Army. By February 1964, RAF and Royal Navy Helicopters including some Westland Wessex operating from bases in Sarawak and Sabah to assist Army and Marine detachments fighting guerilla forces infiltrated by Indonesia over its one thousand mile frontier with Malaysia. In Borneo, the helicopter played a major role in fortifying the frontier and maintaining the frontier strong points by airlifting supplies in.

A total of around fifty-five Westland Wessex HU.5s went to the South Atlantic in 1982, though a few of these, sent as replacements, did not arrive until after the end of hostilities. The The prime role of the UK Marines helicopters was the landing, and moving forward, of Rapier missile systems, fuel, artillery and ammunition.

21st May of 1982 845 Squadron's Wessex HU.5s supported British landings on East Falkland. Some days later short-term SAS observation posts were inserted, with help from Wessex HU.5s, on the mountains behind Stanley. All six of 848 Squadron's Wessex HU.5s were reduced to burning wreckage after the container ship 'Atlantic Conveyor' was hit by an Argentine Exocet missile.

South Vietnam

The H-34 was the primary VNAF helicopter until replaced by the Bell UH-1 Huey.

Israel

A joint air force/paratroops delegation studied helicoters used by the French Army and recommended the acquisition of the Sikorsky S-58 and on February 13th 1958 the first pair arrived in Israel, followed by another helicopter in March. The "Rolling Sword" squadron, which operated all IAF helicopters at the time, operated only a few examples until 1962 when 24 S-58s earmarked for the West German air force were covertly routed to Israel.

At the outbreak of the Six Days War the "Rolling Sword" squadron had 28 airworthy S-58s. The helicopters begun the war evacuating downed pilots, but became more involved as the ground war progressed. On the night of June 5th-6th the S-58s airlifted 600 soldiers behind Egpytian lines in the center of the Sinai after Israeli armour had met fierce resistance. This ground force destroyed an Egpytian artillery position, hastening the collapse of the Egyptian front. On June 7th S-58s were tasked with airlifting Israeli paratroops to capture the southernmost point in the Sinai, Sharm-A-Sheik, but arrived at the site to find it abandoned.

During the final operation of the war, the conquest of the Golan Heights from the Syrians, the S-58s flew Israeli paratroops in to take control of the southern Golan. In three separate airlifts on June 9th-10th, the paratroops were inserted behind Syrian lines and attacked retreating Syrian forces.

The S-58 continued to fly combat missions after the end of the War, mainly against Palestinians infiltrating Israel or against their bases in Jordan. On March 21st 1968 they participated in the operation of Karama, bringing Israeli troops in and out as well as evacuating the wounded. This was the last operation of the S-58 as it was retired shortly later, replaced by the Bell 205 and Aerospatiale Super Frelon.

Civilian use

  • The H-34's lift capacity was just sufficient enough to lift a Mercury capsule. In 1961, the hatch of Mercury 4 was prematurely detached and the capsule was filled with seawater. That extra weight was too much for the H-34 and Liberty Bell 7 was emergency released (in the deep sea).
  • In the 1990s, an S-58ET called Miss Piggy from "New York Helicopter" flew passengers from JFK International Airport to East 34th Street Heliport, New York.
  • H-34 have been used by forest firefighting contractors in Ontario.
  • At least one S-58 was purchased for civilian use by Oregon-based Columbia Helicopters in the 1960s.
  • In 1968, an S-58 was used to remove the wreckage of a Bell 47 G2 helicopter off the top of Uluru.
  • The 1980s television series Riptide, featured a military-surplus H-34 called "The Screaming Mimi".

Variants

H-34A
US Army version of the HSS-1 powered by a 1,525 hp R-1820-84, re-designated CH-34A in 1962, 359 built and 21 transferred from the US Navy.
JH-34A
Designation for H-34A used for weapon tests.
VH-34A
Staff transport conversions of H-34A.
H-34B
H-34As converted with detail changes, became CH-34B in 1962.
H-34C
H-34B design with detail changes converted from H-34As, became CH-34C in 1962.
JH-34C
Designation for CH-34C used for weapon tests.
VH-34C
Staff transport conversions of CH-34C.
HH-34D
Designation applied to aircraft given USAF serials to be transferred under MAP and MDAP.
LH-34D
HUS-1L re-designated in 1962
UH-34D
HUS-1 re-designated in 1962 and 54 new build.
VH-34D
HUS-1Z re-designated in 1962
UH-34E
HUS-1A re-designated in 1962
HH-34F
HUS-1G re-designated in 1962
YSH-34G
YHSS-1 re-designated in 1962
SH-34G
HSS-1 re-designated in 1962
SH-34H
HSS-1F re-designated in 1962
YSH-34J

SH-34Js on the USS Essex in 1962
SH-34Js on the USS Essex in 1962
YHSS-1N re-designated in 1962
SH-34J
HSS-1N re-designated in 1962
UH-34J
SH-34J without ASW equipment for cargo and training purposes.
HH-34J
Ex-USN UH-34Js operated by the US Air Force
VH-34J
Staff transport conversions of SH-34J.
XHSS-1 Seabat
Three Sikorsky S-58s for evaluation by the US Navy, re-designated YHSS-1 then YSH-34G in 1962.
HSS-1 Seabat
Production Anti-Submarine model for the US Navy, re-designated SH-34G in 1962, 215 built
HSS-1F Seabat
One HSS-1 re-engined with two YT-58-GE as a flying test bed, re-designated SH-34H in 1962.
YHSS-1N Seabat
One HSS-1 converted as the HSS-1N prototype, re-designated YSH-34J in 1962.
HSS-1N Seabat
Night/Bad weather version of the HSS-1 with improved avionics and autopilot, re-designated SH-34J in 1962, 167 built (an addition 75 HSS-1 airframes were built to CH-34C standard for West Germany).
HUS-1 Seahorse
Utility transport version of the HSS-1 for the US Marine Corps, re-designated UH-34D in 1962, 462 built
HUS-1A Seahorse
Forty HUS-1s fitted with amphibious pontoons, re-designated UH-34E in 1962.
HUS-1G Seahorse
United States Coast Guard version of the HUS-1, re-designated HH-34F in 1962, six built.
HUS-1L Seahorse
Four HUS-1s converted for antarctic operations with VXE-6, re-designated LH-34D in 1962.
HUS-1Z Seahorse
Seven HUS-1s fitted with VIP interior for the Executive Flight Detachment, re-designated VH-34D in 1962.
S-58
Commercial designation for basic cargo variant
S-58B
Commercial designation for improved cargo variant
S-58C
Commercial passenger transport/airliner version
S-58D
Commercial airliner/freighter version
S-58T
Commercial conversions to turboshaft power by Sikorsky, Orlando Helicopter, and California Helicopter.
S-58 Heli-Camper
Commercial conversion, fitted with a Wright Cyclone R-1820-24 engine.
Orlando Airliner
Commercial conversion. 18-seat passenger transport helicopter.

Operators

Accidents and incidents

  • 27 July 1960 Chicago Helicopter Airways Flight 698 a S-58C registered N879 crashed into Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Illinois, United States with the loss of 11 passengers and two crew. The investigation concluded that the helicopter became uncontrollable as a result of structural disintegration in flight caused by a fatigue failure of the main rotor blade.

Specifications (H-34 Choctaw)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 16 troops or 8 stretchers
  • Length: 56 ft 8.5 in (17.28 m)
  • Rotor diameter: 56 ft 0 in (17.07 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 11 in (4.85 m)
  • Disc area: 2,463 ft² (228.85 m²)
  • Empty weight: 7,900 lb (3,583 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
  • Powerplant:Wright R-1820-84 radial engine, 1,525 hp (1,137 kW)

Performance

Armament

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

Bibliography

External links




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Published - July 2009














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