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de Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Havilland_Canada_DHC-1_Chipmunk

DHC-1 Chipmunk
Privately owned DHC-1 Chipmunk F-AZSM
Role Trainer
Manufacturer de Havilland Canada
Designed by Wsiewołod Jakimiuk
First flight 22 May 1946
Introduced 1946
Retired 1972 (Canada)
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Portuguese Air Force
Belgian Air Force
Produced 1947-1956
Number built 1283 including Canadian, British, and Portuguese production[citation needed]

The de Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk is a tandem, two-seat, single-engined primary trainer aircraft which was the standard primary trainer for the Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal Air Force and several other air forces through much of the post-Second World War years. The de Havilland Chipmunk was the first true postwar aviation project of de Havilland Canada.

Today, over 500 DHC-1 Chipmunk (affectionately known as "Chippie") airframes remain airworthy with more being rebuilt every year.

Design and development


RCAF DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk with the Canadian-style bubble canopy at an air show
RCAF DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk with the Canadian-style bubble canopy at an air show

RCAF Chipmunk from the Primary Flight School at CFB Borden, Ontario, July 1965, (CF Photo)
RCAF Chipmunk from the Primary Flight School at CFB Borden, Ontario, July 1965, (CF Photo)

Civil de Havilland DHC-1A-1 Chipmunk with a Lycoming horizontally opposed engine
Civil de Havilland DHC-1A-1 Chipmunk with a Lycoming horizontally opposed engine

Ex-RAF Chipmunk operated by the National Test Pilot School as a spin trainer at the Mojave Airport
Ex-RAF Chipmunk operated by the National Test Pilot School as a spin trainer at the Mojave Airport

Civilian Chipmunk D-EPAK painted in RAF markings
Civilian Chipmunk D-EPAK painted in RAF markings

The Chipmunk was designed to succeed the de Havilland Tiger Moth biplane trainer that was widely used during the Second World War. Wsiewołod Jakimiuk, a Polish prewar engineer, created the first indigenous design of the aircraft at de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. It is an all-metal, low wing, tandem two-place, single engine aircraft with a conventional tail wheel landing gear and fabric-covered control surfaces. The wing is also fabric-covered aft of the spar. A clear perspex canopy covers the pilot/student (front) and instructor/passenger (rear) positions. CF-DIO-X, the Chipmunk prototype, flew for the first time at Downsview, Toronto on 22 May 1946 with Pat Fillingham at the controls. The production version of the airplane was powered by a 145 hp (108 kW) in-line de Havilland Gipsy Major 8 engine while the prototype was powered by a 145 hp (108 kW) de Havilland Gipsy Major 1C.

Two Chipmunk aircraft were evaluated by the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE) at RAF Boscombe Down. As a result, the fully-aerobatic Chipmunk was ordered as an ab initio trainer for the Royal Air Force (Prince Philip took his first flying lesson in one in 1952). The Royal Canadian Air Force also adopted the Chipmunk as their primary trainer.

British-built and early Canadian-built Chipmunks are notably different from the later Canadian-built RCAF/Lebanese versions. The later Canadian-built airplanes have a bubble canopy, while early Canadian, and all Portuguese and British examples have the multi-panelled sliding canopy, the rearmost panels of which are bulged for better instructor visibility.

From the 1950s onward, the Chipmunk also became a popular civilian aircraft, being used for training, aerobatics and crop spraying. Most civilian aircraft are ex-military.

Super Chipmunk

A number of Chipmunks were modified as aerobatic aircraft in the United States as the "Super Chipmunk". Along with an uprated engine, the aircraft underwent an extensive makeover including clipping its wings, adding retractable landing gear, conversion to a single-seat layout, adding an autopilot and being fitted with a red, white and blue wingtip and tail smoke system. The control stick received a three-inch (76 mm) extension for greater control during extreme aerobatic maneuvers. For over 25 years the Super Chipmunk in its distinctive bright color scheme of blue stars and sunburst effect was displayed by the aerobatic pilot Art Scholl.

Four Super Chipmunk conversions were modified, Scholl's N13A and N13Y, Harold Krier’s N6311V and Skip Volk's N1114V. Another more recent "Super Chipmunk" was converted by air show performer, Jim "Fang" Maroney who similarly modified an ex-RCAF example by strengthening the airframe, replacing the original 145 hp (108 kW) engine with a 260 hp (190 kW) version incorporating an inverted fuel and oil system, clipping three feet off the wings and adding 30% more rudder and 10% more elevator. A spatted landing gear was retained. Another similarly modified "Super Chipmunk", N1804Q, is owned and flown by air show pilot Greg Aldridge. N13Y is now on display at the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Udvar-Hazy Center at Washington-Dulles International Airport., while N1114V is preserved at the EAA AirVenture Museum at Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

Operational history

United Kingdom

The RAF received 735 Chipmunks, designated Chipmunk T.10, manufactured in the UK. They initially served with Reserve Flying Squadrons (RFS) of the RAF Volunteer Reserve (VR) as well as the University Air Squadrons. A few Chipmunks were pressed into service in Cyprus on internal security flights during the conflict in 1958. From 1956 to 1990 some were used for covert reconnaissance by BRIXMIS operating out of RAF Gatow, Berlin. They were still in service for ATC Air Experience Flights until 1996 (the final AEF to use the Chipmunk was No. 10 Air Experience Flight, RAF Woodvale) when they were replaced by the Bulldog (itself replaced by the Grob Tutor in 1999-2001). Chipmunk T.10s were also used by the Army Air Corps and Fleet Air Arm for primary training. The last Chipmunks in military service are operated by the British historic flights - the RAF Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (including one of the BRIXMIS aircraft), the Royal Navy and Army historic flights, to keep their pilots current on tailwheel aircraft for flying displays in the UK.

Canada

The RCAF accepted its first DHC-1 Chipmunks in 1948 and did not retire the last one until 1972, three years after unification in 1968. The Chipmunk's long service was due, in part, to its fully aerobatic capabilities and superb flying characteristics, which made it a delight to fly. It is also a mechanically sound aircraft and, consequently, many ex-RCAF Chipmunks are still operational around the world.

Production

Downsview built 217 Chipmunks, the last in 1956. A total of 1,000 were built in Britain initially at Hatfield Aerodrome and then later at Hawarden Aerodrome. A further 66 Chipmunks were licence-manufactured by OGMA (Oficinas Gerais de Material Aeronáutico, at Alverca) from 1955 to 1961 in Portugal for the Portuguese Air Force.

Variants

Canadian-built


A former RCAF de Havilland DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk with the Canadian-style bubble canopy in the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Hamilton, Ontario
A former RCAF de Havilland DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk with the Canadian-style bubble canopy in the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Hamilton, Ontario
DHC-1A-1 (Chipmunk T.1)
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 1C engine, only partially aerobatic.
DHC-1A-2
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 engine, only partially aerobatic.
DHC-1B-1
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 1C engine, fully aerobatic.
DHC-1B-2
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 engine, fully aerobatic.
DHC-1B-2-S1
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 for Royal Egyptian Air Force.
DHC-1B-2-S2
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 for Royal Thai Air Force.
DHC-1B-2-S3 (Chipmunk T.2)
Powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 for RCAF refresher training operated by Royal Canadian Flying Clubs.
DHC-1B-2-S4
Version for Chile
DHC-1B-2-S5 (Chipmunk T.2)
Built for Royal Canadian Air Force.

British-built


ex-RAF de Havilland DHC-1 Chipmunk Mk 22, built in England in 1951
ex-RAF de Havilland DHC-1 Chipmunk Mk 22, built in England in 1951
Chipmunk T.10
de Havilland Gipsy Major 8 engined version for the Royal Air Force, 735 built.
Chipmunk Mk 20
Military export version of T.10 powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 Series 2 engine, 217 built.
Chipmunk Mk 21
Civil version of Mk 20 but fitted to civil standards, 28 built.
Chipmunk Mk 22
T.10 converted for civilian use. Conversion also involves restamping the Gipsy Major 8 (which is military) to a model 10-2 (which is civil).
Chipmunk Mk 22A
Mk 22 with fuel tankage increased to 12 Imperial gallons per side vs. 9. Aerobatics forbidden in the UK with this conversion.
Chipmunk Mk 23
Five converted T.10s powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 Series 2 engine and with agricultural spray equipment.

Portuguese-built

Chipmunk T.20
Military version powered by de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 Series 2 (145 hp) engine, 10 built in UK followed by 66 built by OGMA.

Civil conversions

Masefield Variant
Modifications or conversions by Bristol Aircraft Ltd. Modifications could be made on Chipmunk Mk 20, Mk 21, Mk 22 and 22A aircraft. The Chipmunks could be fitted with luggage compartments in the wings, a blown canopy, landing gear fairings and enlarged fuel tanks.
Super Chipmunk
Single-seat aerobatic aircraft, powered by a 194-kW (260-hp) Avco Lycoming GO-435 piston engine, equipped with revised flying surfaces and retractable landing gear. Three conversions.
Turbo Chipmunk
In 1967-1968 a Chipmunk Mk 22A was converted, tested and flown by Harts & Sussex Aviation. The Chipmunk was fitted with a 86.42-kW (116-shp) Rover 90 turboprop engine.
Aerostructures Sundowner
One Australian Chipmunk was fitted with a 180-hp (134-kW) Lycoming O-360 flat-four piston engine, wingtip tanks, clear-view canopy and metal wing skinning.
Sasin Spraymaster
Three Australian Chipmunks were converted into single-seat agricultural spraying aircraft.

Operators

Military operators

 Belgium
 Burma
 Canada
Ceylon
 Denmark
 Egypt
 Ghana
 Ireland
 Iraq
 Israel
 Jordan
 Kenya
 Lebanon
 Malaysia
 Portugal
  • Portuguese Air Force
    • Squadron 802, Águias (Sintra)
    • Air Force Academy (Academia de Forca Aerea, Sintra)
 Saudi Arabia
 Syria
 Thailand
 United Kingdom
 Uruguay
 Zambia

Civilian operators

 United States
 United Kingdom

Specifications (DHC-1 Chipmunk)


de Havilland DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk Gipsy Major 10 engine installation
de Havilland DHC-1B-2-S5 Chipmunk Gipsy Major 10 engine installation

Data from The de Havilland Canada Story

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2, student & instructor
  • Length: 25 ft 5 in (7.75 m)
  • Wingspan: 34 ft 4 in (10.47 m)
  • Height: 7 ft in (2.1 m)
  • Wing area: 172 ft² (16.0 m²)
  • Empty weight: 1,517 lb (646 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2,014 lb (953 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 2,200 lb (998 kg)
  • Powerplant:de Havilland Gipsy Major 1C, 145 hp (108 kW)

Performance

See also

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

Bibliography

External links




Text from Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply.


Published - July 2009














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