Computing is usually defined as the activity of using and developing computer technology, computer hardware and software. It is the computer-specific part of information technology. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the science of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
Computing Curricula 2005 defined computing:
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called computer programs. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program's instructions in a central processor. Computer programs are found either in executable form or as the source code from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled). In addition to running in a computer, the source of a program may be used to describe an algorithm to a human reader.
The execution process carries out the instructions of a computer program. The instructions in the program trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions in the program.
Computer programming is the process of writing, testing, debugging/troubleshooting, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language, which is a machine-readable artificial language designed to express the computations performed by the computer. The purpose of programming is to create a program that exhibits a certain desired behaviour (customization). The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic.
The term computing has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline:
Computing Curricula 2005 also recognizes that the meaning of computing depends on the context:
The term computing is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times it was used in reference to mechanical computing machines.
A computer is an electronic device that performs certain arithmetic and logical operations without any errors.
Science and theory
See information processor for a high-level block diagram.
After the commoditization of memory, attention turned to optimizing CPU performance at the instruction level. Various methods of speeding up the fetch-execute cycle include:
History of computing
Wired and wireless computer network
Computing technology based wireless networking (CbWN)
The main of goal of CbWN is to optimize the system performance of the flexible wireless network.
Other data topics
Classes of computers
Companies - current
Companies - historic
See also Open standard
Published - July 2009
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