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List of ISS spacewalks

By Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ISS_spacewalks


An artist's rendering of the fully assembled International Space Station, as it would appear from a spacecraft flying overhead
An artist's rendering of the fully assembled International Space Station, as it would appear from a spacecraft flying overhead

The International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility being assembled in space. The station is in a low Earth orbit about 350 km (190 mi) above the surface of the Earth, and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Assembly began in 1998, and is expected to continue through 2010. The ISS is a joint project of sixteen countries and six space agencies: the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA/ASC), Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Spacewalks for the support of the International Space Station are major milestones in the building and maintaining of the orbital laboratory. Spacewalks are performed to install new components to the station, to re-wire systems, modules, and equipment, and to monitor, install, and retrieve scientific experiments.

Due to the complexity of building a station in space, NASA and its partners train astronauts extensively, preparing them to encounter surprises during spacewalks, teaching them how to assemble special tools and equipment, and carefully coordinating every activity during spacewalks. From 1998 to 2005, thirty-seven space shuttle missions were scheduled to assemble, outfit and begin experiments and research aboard the station.


Jerry Ross during one of the first spacewalks that began assembly of the International Space Station
Jerry Ross during one of the first spacewalks that began assembly of the International Space Station

The initial spacewalk to begin the assembly of the International Space Station was held on December 7, 1998, following the launch of the first section of the station, Zarya, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, on November 20, 1998. The spacewalk attached the U.S. built Unity node to Zarya. The longest spacewalk was performed on March 11, 2001, when STS-102 crew members Susan J. Helms and James S. Voss conducted a full spacewalk, and then returned to the airlock, but remained in their suits ready to exit the airlock again in case the robotics operations ran into problems. The total time for that spacewalk was eight hours and fifty-six minutes.

As of June 10, 2009, there have been 125 spacewalks devoted to assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station. A total time of 780 hours and six minutes has been spent in extra-vehicular activity (EVA), with 97 of these EVAs performed from the station, totaling 579 hours and 42 minutes in spacewalk time from the station itself.

Twenty-eight spacewalks have been performed from a shuttle, sixty-eight from the Quest Joint Airlock, twenty-seven from the Pirs docking compartment, and two from the transfer compartment at the forward end of the Zvezda Service Module.
denotes spacewalks performed from the Pirs docking compartment in Russian Orlan suits.
denotes spacewalks performed from the visiting space shuttle's airlock.
All other spacewalks were performed from the Quest airlock.
ISS Expedition spacewalks are separated from shuttle spacewalks by a separator.

1998–1999

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
1. STS-88
EVA 1
Jerry L. Ross
James H. Newman
December 7, 1998
22:10
December 8, 1998
05:31
7 hours, 21 minutes
Connected computer and electrical cables between the Unity node, the two mating adapters attached to either end of Unity, and the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FCB).[12]
2. STS-88
EVA 2
Jerry L. Ross
James H. Newman
December 9, 1998
20:33
December 10, 1998
03:35
7 hours, 02 minutes
Installed two box-like antennas on the outside of the Unity module that are part of the S-band early communications system.[19]
3. STS-88
EVA 3
Jerry L. Ross
James H. Newman
December 12, 1998
20:33
December 13, 1998
03:32
6 hours, 59 minutes
Checked on an insulation cover on a cable connection on the lower Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA 2) to make sure it is fully installed, attached EVA tools on the side of Unity's upper mating adapter (PMA 1) in preparation for future EVAs, and inspected Orbiter Space Vision System targets on Unity.[20]
4. STS-96
Tamara E. Jernigan
Daniel T. Barry
May 30, 1999
02:56
May 30, 1999
10:51
7 hours, 55 minutes
Transferred and installed two cranes from the shuttle's payload bay to locations on the outside of the station. Installed two new portable foot restraints that will fit both American and Russian space boots, and attached three bags filled with tools and handrails that will be used during future assembly operations.[21]

2000

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
5. STS-101
James S. Voss
Jeffrey N. Williams
May 22, 2000
01:48
May 22, 2000
08:32
6 hours, 44 minutes
Inspected and secured U.S.-built cargo crane known as the Orbital Replacement Unit Transfer Device, completed assembly of a Russian cargo crane called Strela, and replaced one of Unity's two early communication antennas.[22][23]
6. STS-106
Edward T. Lu
Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko
September 11, 2000
04:47
September 11, 2000
11:01
6 hours, 14 minutes
Attached cabling that integrated the Zvezda module fully to the rest of the ISS, and constructed and attached a magnetometer that serves as a backup navigation system for the station.[24]
7. STS-92
EVA 1
Leroy Chiao
William S. McArthur
October 15, 2000
14:27
October 15, 2000
20:55
6 hours, 28 minutes
Connected two sets of cables to provide power to heaters and conduits located on the Z1 truss, relocated two communication antenna assemblies, and installed a toolbox for use during future on-orbit construction.[25]
8. STS-92
EVA 2
Michael E. Lopez-Alegria
Peter J.K. Wisoff
October 16, 2000
14:15
October 16, 2000
21:22
7 hours, 07 minutes
Installed the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-3 docking port, and prepared the Z1 truss for the installation of the solar arrays.[26]
9. STS-92
EVA 3
Leroy Chiao
William S. McArthur
October 17, 2000
14:30
October 17, 2000
21:18
6 hours, 48 minutes
Installed two DC-to-DC converter units atop the station's Z1 Truss.[27]
10. STS-92
EVA 4
Michael E. Lopez-Alegria
Peter J.K. Wisoff
October 18, 2000
15:00
October 18, 2000
21:56
6 hours, 56 minutes
Removed a grapple fixture on the Z1 truss, deployed a Z1 utility tray, Manual Berthing Mechanism latches for Z1 were cycled and opened, and demonstrated the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) pack's abilities.[28][29]
11. STS-97
EVA 1
Joseph R. Tanner
Carlos I. Noriega
December 3, 2000
18:35
December 4, 2000
02:08
7 hours, 33 minutes
Attached the P6 truss to the Z1 Truss, and prepared the solar arrays for deployment. Prepared the radiator for the power system deployment.[30][31]
12. STS-97
EVA 2
Joseph R. Tanner
Carlos I. Noriega
December 5, 2000
17:21
December 5, 2000
23:58
6 hours, 37 minutes
Configured the space station to use power from the P6. Positioned the S-band antenna for use by the space station. Prepared the station for the arrival of the U. S. Laboratory, Destiny.[32]
13. STS-97
EVA 3
Joseph R. Tanner
Carlos I. Noriega
December 7, 2000
16:13
December 7, 2000
21:23
5 hours, 10 minutes
Positioned a floating potential probe to measure the plasma field surrounding the space station, performed repair work to increase tension in the starboard solar array blankets that did not stretch out completely during deployment, and installed a centerline camera cable outside the Unity node.[33]

2001

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
14. STS-98
EVA 1
Thomas D. Jones
Robert L. Curbeam
February 10, 2001
15:50
February 10, 2001
23:24
7 hours, 34 minutes
Removed protective launch covers and disconnected power and cooling cables between Destiny and Atlantis, while crewmembers inside moved the 3,800 cubic foot laboratory from the payload bay to its home on the Unity node. Curbeam and Jones then connected electrical, data and cooling lines to the lab, during which a small amount of ammonia crystals leaked from one of the hoses, prompting a decontamination procedure.[34][35]
15. STS-98
EVA 2
Thomas D. Jones
Robert L. Curbeam
February 12, 2001
15:59
February 12, 2001
22:49
6 hours, 50 minutes
Installed the shuttle docking adapter onto Destiny, installed insulating covers over the pins that held Destiny in place during launch, attached a vent to the lab's air system, installed handrails and sockets on the exterior of Destiny, and attached a base for the future space station robotic arm.[36]
16. STS-98
EVA 3
Thomas D. Jones
Robert L. Curbeam
February 14, 2001
14:48
February 14, 2001
20:13
5 hours, 25 minutes
Attached a spare communications antenna to the station, double-checked connections between the Destiny lab and its docking port, released a cooling radiator on the station, inspected solar array connections at the top of the station, and tested the ability of a spacewalker to carry an immobile crew member back to the shuttle airlock. This was the 100th U.S. spacewalk.[37]
17. STS-102
EVA 1
James S. Voss
Susan J. Helms
March 11, 2001
05:12
March 11, 2001
14:08
8 hours, 56 minutes
Prepared Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 for repositioning from Unity’s Earth-facing berth to the port-side berth to make room for Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Removed a Lab Cradle Assembly from the shuttle's cargo bay and installed it on the side of Destiny, and installed a cable tray to Destiny for later use by the station’s robot arm. After re-entering the shuttle's airlock, Voss and Helms remained ready to assist if any troubles installing the docking port were encountered by the crew inside the shuttle. Longest space walk in shuttle history.[13]
18. STS-102
EVA 2
Andrew S. W. Thomas
Paul W. Richards
March 13, 2001
05:23
March 13, 2001
11:44
6 hours, 21 minutes
Installed an External Stowage Platform for spare station parts, attached a spare ammonia coolant pump to the platform, finished connecting several cables put in place on the first EVA for the station's robotic arm. Inspected a Unity node heater connection, and inspected of an exterior experiment, the Floating Potential Probe.[38]
19. STS-100
EVA 1
Chris Hadfield
Scott E. Parazynski
April 22, 2001
11:45
April 22, 2001
18:55
7 hours, 10 minutes
Installed the station's UHF antenna, and the Canadian Space Agency made Canadarm2. Connected cables to give the arm power and allow it to accept computer commands from inside the lab. Hadfield became the first Canadian spacewalker.[39]
20. STS-100
EVA 2
Chris Hadfield
Scott E. Parazynski
April 24, 2001
12:34
April 24, 2001
20:14
7 hours, 40 minutes
Connected the Power and Data Grapple Fixture circuits for Canadarm2 onto Destiny, removed an early communications antenna, transferred a spare Direct Current Switching Unit from the shuttle's payload bay to an equipment storage rack on the outside of Destiny.[40]
21. Expedition 2
Yury Usachev
James Voss
June 8, 2001
14:21
June 8, 2001
14:40
0 hours, 19 minutes
Installed the docking cone onto the Zarya module, in preparation for the arrival of the Russian Pirs docking compartment. Only EVA to be conducted from the transfer compartment at the forward end of the Zvezda Service Module.[41]
22. STS-104
EVA 1
Michael L. Gernhardt
James F. Reilly
July 15, 2001
03:10
July 15, 2001
09:09
5 hours, 59 minutes
Installed the Quest Joint Airlock onto the Unity node.[42][43][44]
23. STS-104
EVA 2
Michael L. Gernhardt
James F. Reilly
July 18, 2001
03:04
July 18, 2001
09:33
6 hours, 29 minutes
Installed one of two high-pressure nitrogen tanks, and one of two high-pressure oxygen tanks onto Quest, and installed grapple fixture and trunion covers.[42][44][45]
24. STS-104
EVA 3
Michael L. Gernhardt
James F. Reilly
July 21, 2001
04:35
July 21, 2001
08:37
4 hours, 02 minutes
First EVA conducted from the Quest airlock. Installed the second high-pressure nitrogen tank, and the second oxygen tank onto the Quest airlock.[44][46][47]
25. STS-105
EVA 1
Daniel T. Barry
Patrick G. Forrester
August 16, 2001
13:58
August 16, 2001
20:14
6 hours, 16 minutes
Installed an Early Ammonia Servicer onto the station's P6 truss, co-location of the foot restraint in a stowed location, and installed the Materials International Space Station Experiment(MISSE)-1 and 2 containers onto the Quest airlock.[48][49]
26. STS-105
EVA 2
Daniel T. Barry
Patrick G. Forrester
August 18, 2001
13:42
August 18, 2001
19:11
5 hours, 29 minutes
Installed heater cables and handrails onto the station's Destiny laboratory.[48][49]
27. Expedition 3
EVA 1
Vladimir Dezhurov
Mikhail Tyurin
October 8, 2001
14:24
October 8, 2001
19:22
4 hours, 58 minutes
Installed cables between the Pirs docking compartment, and the Zvezda module to allow spacewalk radio communications between the two sections. Installed handrails onto Pirs, and installed an exterior ladder to assist spacewalkers leaving Pirs. Installed a Strela cargo crane.[50]
28. Expedition 3
EVA 2
Vladimir Dezhurov
Mikhail Tyurin
October 15, 2001
09:17
October 15, 2001
15:08
5 hours, 51 minutes
Installed Russian commercial experiments (MPAC-SEEDS) onto the exterior of the Pirs docking compartment.[50]
29. Expedition 3
EVA 3
Vladimir Dezhurov
Frank Culbertson
November 12, 2001
21:41
November 13, 2001
02:46
5 hours, 05 minutes
Connected cables on the exterior of Pirs for the Kurs automated docking system, completed checks of the Strela cargo crane, and inspected and photographed a panel of a solar array on Zvezda that had a portion of a panel not fully unfolded.[50]
30. Expedition 3
EVA 4
Vladimir Dezhurov
Mikhail Tyurin
December 3, 2001
13:20
December 3, 2001
16:06
2 hours, 46 minutes
Removed an obstruction that prevented a Progress resupply ship from firmly docking with the station, and took pictures of the debris and of the docking interface.[50]
31. STS-108
Linda M. Godwin
Daniel M. Tani
December 10, 2001
17:52
December 10, 2001
22:04
4 hours, 12 minutes
Installed insulating blankets around two Beta Gimbal Assemblies that rotate the station's solar array wings, and performed get-ahead tasks in preparation for STS-110's spacewalks.[51][52][53]

2002

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
32. Expedition 4
EVA 1
Yury Onufrienko
Carl E. Walz
January 14, 2002
20:59
January 15, 2002
03:02
6 hours, 03 minutes
Moved the cargo boom for the Russian Strela crane from PMA1 to the exterior of the Pirs docking compartment, installed an amateur radio antenna onto the end of Zvezda.[54]
33. Expedition 4
EVA 2
Yury Onufrienko
Daniel W. Bursch
January 25, 2002
15:19
January 25, 2002
21:18
5 hours, 59 minutes
Installed six deflector shields for Zvezda's jet thrusters, installed a second amateur radio antenna, attached four science experiments, and retrieved and replaced a device to measure material from the thrusters.[54]
34. Expedition 4
EVA 3
Carl E. Walz
Daniel W. Bursch
February 20, 2002
11:38
February 20, 2002
17:25
5 hours, 47 minutes
Tested the Quest airlock, and prepared it for the four spacewalks that will be performed during STS-110. The first spacewalk to be based out of Quest without a space shuttle at the station.[54]
35. STS-110
EVA 1
Steven L. Smith
Rex J. Walheim
April 11, 2002
14:36
April 11, 2002
22:24
7 hours, 48 minutes
Began installing the S0 Truss onto Destiny, initial power and data connections installed between the station and S0, and installed two forward struts that permanently hold the truss in place.[55]
36. STS-110
EVA 2
Jerry L. Ross
Lee M.E. Morin
April 13, 2002
14:09
April 13, 2002
21:39
7 hours, 30 minutes
Continued S0 Truss installation, power and data cable connections installed between S0 and the station, and installed two aft struts that permanently hold the truss in place.[55]
37. STS-110
EVA 3
Steven L. Smith
Rex J. Walheim
April 14, 2002
13:48
April 14, 2002
20:15
6 hours, 27 minutes
Released the claw that was used in the initial attachment of the S0 Truss, installed connectors that will be used to route power to Canadarm2 when it is on the truss, released launch restraints from the Mobile Transporter, and removed a small thermal cover the Mobile Transporter's radiator.[55]
38. STS-110
EVA 4
Jerry L. Ross
Lee M.E. Morin
April 16, 2002
14:29
April 16, 2002
21:06
6 hours, 37 minutes
Pivoted the "Airlock Spur", which will be used by spacewalkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss, installed handrails onto S0, partially assembled a platform, and installed two floodlights.[55][56]
39. STS-111
EVA 1
Franklin Chang-Diaz
Philippe Perrin
June 9, 2002
15:27
June 9, 2002
22:41
7 hours, 14 minutes
Attached a Power and Data Grapple Fixture to the P6 truss, removed debris panels from Endeavour's payload bay and attached them to a temporary location on PMA1, and removed thermal blankets to prepare the Mobile Base System (MBS) for installation onto the station's Mobile Transporter.[57][58]
40. STS-111
EVA 2
Franklin Chang-Diaz
Philippe Perrin
June 11, 2002
15:20
June 11, 2002
20:20
5 hours, 00 minutes
Attached Mobile Base System to the Mobile Transporter, attached power, data and video cables from the station to the MBS.[57][59]
41. STS-111
EVA 3
Franklin Chang-Diaz
Philippe Perrin
June 13, 2002
15:16
June 13, 2002
22:33
7 hours, 17 minutes
Replaced Canadarm2's wrist roll joint, and stowed the old joint in the shuttle's payload bay to be returned to Earth.[57][60]
42. Expedition 5
EVA 1
Valery Korzun
Peggy Whitson
August 16, 2002
09:25
August 16, 2002
13:48
4 hours, 23 minutes
Installed six micro meteoroid debris panels onto Zvezda.[61]
43. Expedition 5
EVA 2
Valery Korzun
Sergei Treshchev
August 26, 2002
05:27
August 26, 2002
10:48
5 hours, 21 minutes
Installed a frame on the outside of Zarya for spacewalk assembly tasks, installed new samples on a pair of Japanese Space Agency experiments housed on Zvezda, installed devices on Zvezda that would simplify the routing of tethers during future spacewalks, and installed two additional ham radio antennas on Zvezda.[61]
44. STS-112
EVA 1
David A. Wolf
Piers J. Sellers
October 10, 2002
15:21
October 10, 2002
22:22
7 hours, 01 minutes
Released launch locks that held the S1 truss radiators in place during launch, attached power, data and fluid lines between the S1 truss and S0, deployed the station's second S-Band communications system, installed the first of two external camera systems, and released launch restraints on the truss' mobile spacewalk workstation, Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA).[62][63]
45. STS-112
EVA 2
David A. Wolf
Piers J. Sellers
October 12, 2002
14:31
October 12, 2002
20:35
6 hours, 04 minutes
Installed a second camera system, released more radiator launch locks, removed insulation covers on quick-disconnect fittings near the Z1 and P6 junction and to install Spool Positioning Devices, released starboard-side launch restraints on the CETA cart, and attached Ammonia Tank Assembly cables.[62][64]
46. STS-112
EVA 3
David A. Wolf
Piers J. Sellers
October 14, 2002
14:08
October 14, 2002
20:44
6 hours, 36 minutes
Removed and replaced the Interface Umbilical Assembly on the station's Mobile Transporter, installed two jumpers that will allow ammonia coolant to flow between the S1 and S0 Trusses, released a drag link and stowed it, and installed Spool Positioning Devices (SPD) on ammonia lines.[62][65]
47. STS-113
EVA 1
Michael Lopez-Alegria
John Herrington
November 26, 2002
19:49
November 27, 2002
02:34
6 hours, 45 minutes
Initial installation of the P1 truss, installed connections between the P1 and the S0 truss, released launch restraints on the CETA cart, installed Spool Positioning Devices (SPDs) onto the station, removed a drag link on P1 that served as a launch restraint, and installed a Wireless video system External Transceiver Assembly onto the Unity node.[66][67]
48. STS-113
EVA 2
Michael Lopez-Alegria
John Herrington
November 28, 2002
18:36
November 29, 2002
00:46
6 hours, 10 minutes
Installed fluid jumpers where the S0 and the P1 are attached to each other, removed the P1's starboard keel pin, installed another Wireless video system External Transceiver Assembly onto the P1, and relocated the CETA cart from the P1to the S1 truss.[66][68]
49. STS-113
EVA 3
Michael Lopez-Alegria
John Herrington
November 30, 2002
19:25
December 1, 2002
02:25
7 hours, 00 minutes
Installed more Spool Positioning Devices, reconfigured electrical harnesses that route power through the Main Bus Switching Units, and attached Ammonia Tank Assembly lines.[66][69]

2003

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
50. Expedition 6
EVA 1
Kenneth Bowersox
Donald Pettit
January 15, 2003
12:50
January 15, 2003
19:41
6 hours, 51 minutes
Released the remaining launch locks on the P1 radiator assembly, removed debris on a sealing ring of Unity's docking port, and tested an ammonia reservoir on the station's P6 truss.[70]
51. Expedition 6
EVA 2
Kenneth Bowersox
Donald Pettit
April 8, 2003
12:40
April 8, 2003
19:06
6 hours, 26 minutes
Reconfigured cables on the S0 (S-Zero), S1 and P1 trusses, replaced a Power Control Module on the Mobile Transporter, installed Spool Positioning Devices on Destiny, and reinstalled a thermal cover on an S1 Radiator Beam Valve Module.[70]

2004

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
52. Expedition 8
Michael Foale
Alexander Kaleri
February 26, 2004
21:17
February 27, 2004
01:12
3 hours, 55 minutes
Replaced cassette containers that held sample materials for a microgravity experiment, attached the Russian experiment Matryoshka to Zvezda, and removed a JAXA micro-meteor impact experiment. Spacewalk was cut short due a cooling system malfunction in Kaleri's spacesuit.[71]
53. Expedition 9
EVA 1
Gennady Padalka
Edward Fincke
June 24, 2004
21:56
June 24, 2004
22:10
0 hours, 14 minutes
Spacewalk cut short due to a pressure problem in Fincke's prime oxygen tank in his spacesuit. Mission managers decided to reschedule the spacewalk for June 30.[72][73]
54. Expedition 9
EVA 2
Gennady Padalka
Edward Fincke
June 30, 2004
21:19
July 1, 2004
02:59
5 hours, 40 minutes
Replaced a Remote Power Controller (RPC) that failed in late April, causing a loss of power in Control Moment Gyroscope No. 2 (CMG 2).[72][74]
55. Expedition 9
EVA 3
Gennady Padalka
Edward Fincke
August 3, 2004
06:58
August 3, 2004
11:28
4 hours, 30 minutes
Removed laser retro reflectors from the Zvezda assembly compartment, and installed three updated laser retro reflectors and one internal videometer target in preparation for the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). Installed two antennas, and removed and replaced Kromka experiment packages.[72][75]
56. Expedition 9
EVA 4
Gennady Padalka
Edward Fincke
September 3, 2004
16:43
September 3, 2004
22:04
5 hours, 20 minutes
Replaced the Zarya Control Module flow control panel, installed four safety tether fairleads on Zarya's handrails, installed three communications antennas, and removed covers from the antennas.[72][76]

2005

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
57. Expedition 10
EVA 1
Leroy Chiao
Salizhan Sharipov
January 26, 2005
07:43
January 26, 2005
13:11
5 hours, 28 minutes
Completed the installation of the Universal Work Platform, mounted the European commercial experiment Rokviss (Robotic Components Verification on ISS) and its antenna, installed the Russian Biorisk experiment, and relocated a Japanese exposure experiment.[77][78]
58. Expedition 10
EVA 2
Leroy Chiao
Salizhan Sharipov
March 28, 2005
06:25
March 28, 2005
10:55
4 hours, 30 minutes
Installed navigational and communications equipment for the arrival of the first Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and deployed an 11-pound Russian Nanosatellite.[77][79]
59. STS-114
EVA 1
Soichi Noguchi
Stephen K. Robinson
July 30, 2005
09:48
July 30, 2005
17:36
6 hours, 50 minutes
Demonstrated shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the Station’s attitude control system. installed a base and cabling for an External Stowage Platform, rerouted power to Control Moment Gyroscope-2 (CMG-2), retrieved two exposure experiments, and replaced a faulty global positioning system antenna on the station.[80]
60. STS-114
EVA 2
Soichi Noguchi
Stephen K. Robinson
August 1, 2005
08:42
August 1, 2005
15:56
7 hours, 14 minutes
Removed faulty CMG-1 from the Z1 truss, installed faulty CMG-1 into Discovery's payload bay, and installed new CMG-1 onto the Z1 truss segment.[81][82]
61. STS-114
EVA 3
Soichi Noguchi
Stephen K. Robinson
August 3, 2005
08:48
August 3, 2005
14:49
6 hours, 1 minute
Photographed and inspected Discovery’s heat shield, removed two protruding gap fillers from between tiles in the forward area of the orbiter’s underside, and installed amateur radio satellite PCSAT2.[83]
62. Expedition 11
EVA 1
Sergei Krikalev
John Phillips
August 18, 2005
19:02
August 19, 2005
00:00
4 hours, 58 minutes
Retrieved one of three canisters from the Biorisk experiment, removed Micro-Particles Capturer experiment and Space Environment Exposure Device from Zvezda, retrieved Matroska experiment, installed an Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) docking television camera.[84][85]
63. Expedition 12
EVA 1
William S. McArthur
Valery Tokarev
November 7, 2005
15:32
November 7, 2005
20:54
5 hours, 22 minutes
Installed and setup the P1 Truss camera, retrieved a failed Rotary Joint Motor Controller (RJMC), jettisoned a Floating Potential Probe, and removed and replaced a remote power controller module on the Mobile Transporter. First Quest airlock-based spacewalk since April 2003.[86]

2006

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
64. Expedition 12
EVA 2
William S. McArthur
Valery Tokarev
February 3, 2006
9:55
February 3, 2006
16:27
5 hours, 43 minutes
Released SuitSat-1, retrieved the Biorisk experiment, photographed a sensor for a micrometeoroid experiment, relocated an adapter for a small crane, and tied off the surviving umbilical of the Mobile Transporter.[87]
65. Expedition 13
EVA 1
Pavel Vinogradov
Jeffrey Williams
June 1, 2006
23:48
June 2, 2006
06:19
6 hours, 31 minutes
Repaired a vent for the station's oxygen-producing Elektron unit, retrieved a Biorisk experiment, retrieved a contamination-monitoring device from Zvezda, and replaced a malfunctioning camera on the Mobile Base System.[88]
66. STS-121
EVA 1
Piers Sellers
Michael E. Fossum
July 8, 2006
13:17
July 8, 2006
20:48
7 hours, 31 minutes
Installed a blade blocker in the zenith Interface Umbilical Assembly (IUA) to protect the undamaged power, data and video cable, rerouted the cable to prepare for the second EVA. Tested the combination of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) and the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) as a platform for astronauts to make repairs to a damaged orbiter.[89]
67. STS-121
EVA 2
Piers Sellers
Michael E. Fossum
July 10, 2006
12:14
July 10, 2006
19:01
6 hours, 47 minutes
Restored the International Space Station’s Mobile Transporter rail car to full operation, and delivered a spare pump module for the station’s cooling system. Sellers' SAFER pack came loose during the EVA, requiring Fossum to stop twice during the spacewalk to secure the pack with safety tethers.[90]
68. STS-121
EVA 3
Piers Sellers
Michael E. Fossum
July 12, 2006
7:11
July 12, 2006
13:31
6 hours, 20 minutes
Used an infrared camera to shoot 20 seconds of video of selected reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels on the shuttle wing’s leading edge, and then moved to the payload bay to test a shuttle tile repair material known as NOAX on pre-damaged shuttle tiles that were flown in a test container.[91]
69. Expedition 13
EVA 2
Jeffrey Williams
Thomas Reiter
August 3, 2006
14:04
August 3, 2006
19:58
5 hours, 54 minutes
Installed: The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), two materials on Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) containers, a controller for a thermal radiator rotary joint on the S1 truss, a starboard jumper and spool positioning device (SPD) on S1, a light on the truss railway handcart, and installed and replaced a malfunctioning GPS antenna. Tested an infrared camera designed to detect damage in a shuttle's reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) thermal protection tiles. Inspection and photography of a scratch on the Quest airlock hatch.[92]
70. STS-115
EVA 1
Joe Tanner
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
September 12, 2006
10:17
September 12, 2006
15:43
5 hours, 26 minutes
Initial installation of the P3/P4 truss onto the space station. Connected power cables on the truss, released the launch restraints on the solar array blanket box, the Beta Gimbal Assembly, and the solar array wings. Configured the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), and removed two circuit interrupt devices to prepare for STS-116. Piper became the seventh American woman to conduct a spacewalk.[93]
71. STS-115
EVA 2
Dan Burbank
Steve MacLean
September 13, 2006
9:05
September 13, 2006
16:16
7 hours, 11 minutes
Continued installation of the P3/4 truss onto the station, and activated the SARJ.[94]
72. STS-115
EVA 3
Joe Tanner
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
September 15, 2006
10:00
September 15, 2006
16:42
6 hours, 42 minutes
Installed a radiator onto the P3/4 truss, powered up a cooling radiator for the new solar arrays, replaced an S-Band radio antenna, and installed insulation for another antenna. Tanner took photos of the shuttle’s wings using an infrared camera to test the camera's ability to detect damage.[95]
73. Expedition 14
EVA 1
Mikhail Tyurin
Michael Lopez-Alegria
November 22, 2006
23:17
November 23, 2006
04:55
5 hours, 38 minutes
"Orbiting golf shot" event sponsored by a Canadian golf company through the Russian Federal Space Agency. Lopez-Alegria put the tee on the ladder outside Pirs, while Tyurin set up a camera, and then performed the golf shot. Inspected and photographed a Kurs antenna on Progress 23, relocated an Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) WAL antenna, installed a BTN neutron experiment, and jettisoned two thermal covers from the BTN.[96]
74. STS-116
EVA 1
Robert Curbeam
Christer Fuglesang
December 12, 2006
20:31
December 13, 2006
03:07
6 hours, 36 minutes
Installed the ISS P5 Truss, and replaced a video camera on the S1 truss.[97]
75. STS-116
EVA 2
Robert Curbeam
Christer Fuglesang
December 14, 2006
19:41
December 15, 2006
00:41
5 hours, 00 minutes
Reconfigured the station's electrical wiring, channels 2–3 on the P3/P4 truss to take advantage of the new solar arrays, relocated two handcarts that run along rails on the station’s main truss, put a thermal cover on the station’s robotic arm, and installed bags of tools for future spacewalkers.[98]
76. STS-116
EVA 3
Robert Curbeam
Sunita Williams
December 16, 2006
19:25
December 17, 2006
02:57
7 hours, 31 minutes
Completed rewiring the station's electrical system, circuits 1 and 4, to take advantage of the P3/P4 solar array power, installed a robotic arm grapple fixture, and positioned three bundles of Russian debris shield panels outside Zvezda. Additional time was spent trying to help retract the P6 solar array panel by shaking the panel's blanket box from its base. (Williams became the 8th American woman to perform an EVA, and the 9th woman spacewalker.)[99]
77. STS-116
EVA 4
Robert Curbeam
Christer Fuglesang
December 18, 2006
19:00
December 19, 2006
01:38
6 hours, 38 minutes
Assisted ground controllers with retracting the P6 solar array panels. Curbeam, on his seventh spacewalk, set a single-flight EVA record with four spacewalks in a single shuttle mission.[100]

2007

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
78. Expedition 14
EVA 2
Michael Lopez-Alegria
Sunita Williams
January 31, 2007
15:14
January 31, 2007
23:09
7 hours 55 minutes
Reconfigured one of the two cooling loops serving Destiny from the temporary to permanent system, connected a cable for the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS), installed six cable cinches and two winch bars to secure the starboard radiator of the P6 Truss, and then installed a shroud over it. Removed one of two fluid lines from the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) on the P6 Truss. The EAS would be jettisoned during a later EVA.[101]
79. Expedition 14
EVA 3
Michael Lopez-Alegria
Sunita Williams
February 4, 2007
13:38
February 4, 2007
20:49
7 hours, 11 minutes
Reconfigured the second of the two cooling loops serving Destiny from the temporary to permanent system, completed work with the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) on the P6 Truss, photographed the inboard end of the P6 starboard solar wing in preparation for its retraction during STS-117, removed a sunshade from a multiplexer-demultiplexer data relay device, and continued work on the SSPTS.[102]
80. Expedition 14
EVA 4
Michael Lopez-Alegria
Sunita Williams
February 8, 2007
13:26
February 8, 2007
20:06
6 hours, 40 minutes
Removed two thermal shrouds on two Rotary Joint Motor Controllers (RJMC) on the P3 truss, removed two large shrouds from P3 Bays 18 and 20, and jettisoned the shrouds away from the station. Deployed an Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Assembly Attachment System (UCCAS) on the upper face of the P3 truss, removed two launch locks from the P5 truss, and connected four cables of the SSPTS to the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-2) at the forward end of Destiny where shuttles dock.[103]
81. Expedition 14
EVA 5
Mikhail Tyurin
Michael Lopez-Alegria
February 22, 2007
10:27
February 22, 2007
16:45
6 hours, 18 minutes
Retracted the antenna of the Progress cargo carrier at the aft port of the Zvezda service module, photographed a Russian satellite navigation antenna, and replaced a Russian materials experiment, inspected and photographed an antenna for the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), photographed a German robotics experiment, and inspected, remated, and photographed hardware connectors.[104]
82. Expedition 15
EVA 1
Fyodor Yurchikhin
Oleg Kotov
May 30, 2007
19:05
May 31, 2007
00:30
5 hours, 25 minutes
Installed Service Module Debris Protection (SMDP) panels and rerouted a Global Positioning System antenna cable.[105]
83. Expedition 15
EVA 2
Fyodor Yurchikhin
Oleg Kotov
June 6, 2007
14:23
June 6, 2007
20:00
5 hours, 37 minutes
Installed a section of Ethernet cable on the Zarya module, installed additional Service Module Debris Protection (SMDP) panels on Zvezda, and deployed a Russian scientific experiment.[106]
84. STS-117
EVA 1
James F. Reilly
John D. Olivas
June 11, 2007
20:02
June 12, 2007
02:17
6 hours, 15 minutes
Began the S3/S4 Truss installation.[107]
85. STS-117
EVA 2
Patrick G. Forrester
Steven Swanson
June 13, 2007
18:28
June 14, 2007
01:44
7 hours, 16 minutes
Assisted in retraction of the solar panels on the P6 Truss. Completed the S3/S4 truss installation. Partial failure due to the S3/S4 SARJ motor control circuits being wired in reverse, so some launch restraints were left in place to prevent the possibility of undesired rotation.[108]
86. STS-117
EVA 3
James F. Reilly
John D. Olivas
June 15, 2007
17:24
June 16, 2007
01:22
7 hours 58 minutes
Repaired the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pod thermal blanket, finished the P6 solar array retraction, and installed a hydrogen ventilation valve onto Destiny.[109]
87. STS-117
EVA 4
Patrick G. Forrester
Steven Swanson
June 17, 2007
16:25
June 17, 2007
22:54
6 hours 29 minutes
Retrieved a television camera and its support structure from an External Stowage Platform attached to the Quest airlock, and installed it on the S3 truss, verified the Drive Lock Assembly (DLA) 2 configuration, and removed the last six SARJ launch restraints. Installed a computer network cable on the Unity node, opened the hydrogen vent valve on the Destiny laboratory, and tethered two orbital debris shield panels on the station’s service module.[110]
88. Expedition 15
EVA 3
Clayton Anderson
Fyodor Yurchikhin
July 23, 2007
10:25
July 23, 2007
18:06
7 hours, 41 minutes
Replaced components for the Mobile Transporter's redundant power system, jettisoned an ammonia tank and flight support equipment, and cleaned the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on the nadir port of Unity.[111][112]
89. STS-118
EVA 1
Richard Mastracchio
Dafydd Williams
August 11, 2007
16:28
August 11, 2007
23:45
6 hours 17 minutes
Attached the Starboard 5 (S5) segment of the station’s truss, and retracted the forward heat-rejecting radiator from the station’s Port 6 (P6) truss.[113]
90. STS-118
EVA 2
Richard Mastracchio
Dafydd Williams
August 13, 2007
15:32
August 13, 2007
22:00
6 hours, 28 minutes
Removed the new Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) from the shuttle's payload bay and installed it onto the Z1 truss. Installed the failed CMG onto an External Stowage Platform (ESP-2).[114]
91. STS-118
EVA 3
Richard Mastracchio
Clay Anderson
August 15, 2007
14:38
August 15, 2007
20:05
5 hours, 28 minutes
Moved two Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) carts from tracks on the left side of the Canadarm2 Mobile Transporter to its right side. Relocated an antenna base from the P6 truss to P1, and installed a new transponder and signal processor for an S-band communications upgrade. During the EVA, Mastracchio noted a hole in the second layer of material on the thumb of his left glove. The suit has five protective layers, and the small hole did not cause any danger to Mastracchio, but he returned to the airlock early as a precautionary measure.[115]
92. STS-118
EVA 4
Dafydd Williams
Clay Anderson
August 18, 2007
14:17
August 18, 2007
19:02
5 hours, 02 minutes
Retrieved Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) containers 3 and 4, installed the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) Boom Stand, installed an External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS) antenna, and secured Z1 gimbal locks.[116]
93. STS-120
EVA 1
Scott E. Parazynski
Douglas H. Wheelock
October 26, 2007
10:02
October 26, 2007
16:16
6 hours, 14 minutes
Installed the new Harmony module in its temporary location, retrieved the S-Band Antenna Support Assembly, and prepared for the relocation of the P6 truss by disconnecting fluid lines on the P6/Z1 truss segments.[117]
94. STS-120
EVA 2
Scott E. Parazynski
Daniel M. Tani
October 28, 2007
09:32
October 28, 2007
16:05
6 hours, 33 minutes
Disconnected the Z1-to-P6 umbilicals, detached P6 from Z1, configured the S1 radiator, installed handrails onto Harmony, and inspected the S4 starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ).[118]
95. STS-120
EVA 3
Scott E. Parazynski
Douglas H. Wheelock
October 30, 2007
08:45
October 30, 2007
15:53
7 hours, 08 minutes
Attached P6 to P5, installed P6/P5 umbilical connections, reconfigured S1 following its redeployment, and inspected the port SARJ.[119]
96. STS-120
EVA 4
Scott E. Parazynski
Douglas H. Wheelock
November 3, 2007
10:03
November 3, 2007
17:22
7 hours, 19 minutes
Inspection and repair of the P6 solar array.[120]
97. Expedition 16
EVA 1
Peggy Whitson
Yuri Malenchenko
November 9, 2007
09:54
November 9, 2007
16:49
6 hours, 55 minutes
Disconnected and stored the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System cables, stored the PMA-2 umbilical, and stowed a Harmony node avionics umbilical into a temporary position.[121][122]
98. Expedition 16
EVA 2
Peggy Whitson
Daniel M. Tani
November 20, 2007
10:10
November 20, 2007
17:26
7 hours, 16 minutes
External configuration of PMA-2 and Harmony: Fluid, electrical, and data lines attached, avionics lines hooked up, heater cables attached, and relocated a fluid tray.[123]
99. Expedition 16
EVA 3
Peggy Whitson
Daniel M. Tani
November 24, 2007
09:50
November 24, 2007
16:54
7 hours, 04 minutes
Completion of fluid, electrical, and data line hookups for PMA-2 and Harmony. Loop B Fluid Tray connected to the port side of the Destiny laboratory. Inspected and photographed the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) to assist with troubleshooting on the ground.[124]
100. Expedition 16
EVA 4
Peggy Whitson
Daniel M. Tani
December 18, 2007
09:50
December 18, 2007
16:46
6 hours, 56 minutes
Inspected the S4 starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), and a Beta Gimbal Assembly (BGA).[125] Records: 100th EVA in support of assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station. Whitson became the female astronaut with the most EVAs (five) and the most time spent in EVA, with a total of 32 hours, 36 minutes.[126][127][128]

2008

Mission Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
101. Expedition 16
EVA 5
Peggy Whitson
Daniel M. Tani
January 30, 2008
09:56
January 30, 2008
17:06
7 hours, 10 minutes
Replaced the Bearing Motor Roll Ring Module on one of the station's solar wings, and inspected and photographed the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ).[129]
102. STS-122
EVA 1
Rex J. Walheim
Stanley G. Love
February 11, 2008
14:13
February 11, 2008
22:11
7 hours, 58 minutes
Installed a grapple fixture on Columbus while it was still in the shuttle’s payload bay, prepared electrical and data connections on Columbus, and replaced a large nitrogen tank used for pressurizing the station's ammonia cooling system.[130]
103. STS-122
EVA 2
Rex J. Walheim
Hans Schlegel
February 13, 2008
14:27
February 13, 2008
21:12
6 hours, 45 minutes
Installed the P1 Truss Nitrogen (N2) tank assembly, stowed the old N2 tank assembly into the shuttle's payload bay, and completed routing for the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS).[131]
104. STS-122
EVA 3
Rex J. Walheim
Stanley G. Love
February 15, 2008
14:27
February 15, 2008
20:32
7 hours, 25 minutes
Installed the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) telescope and the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) facility onto an External Stowage Platform (ESP) on Columbus. Retrieved a failed Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG), installed the failed CMG into the shuttle's payload bay, and installed keel pin cloth covers on Columbus.[132]
105. STS-123
EVA 1
Richard M. Linnehan
Garrett Reisman
March 14, 2008
01:18
March 14, 2008
08:19
7 hours, 01 minute
Installed the Japanese Experiment Logistics Module, Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) onto its temporary location on top of Harmony, and began assembly of the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre) .[133]
106. STS-123
EVA 2
Richard M. Linnehan
Michael Foreman
March 15, 2008
23:49
March 16, 2008
06:57
7 hours, 08 minutes
Dextre assembly continued, two "arms" attached to Dextre.[134]
107. STS-123
EVA 3
Richard M. Linnehan
Robert L. Behnken
March 17, 2008
22:51
March 18, 2008
05:44
6 hours, 53 minutes
Dextre assembly completed. Spare equipment for the station installed onto an external stowage platform (ESP) on the Quest airlock, including a yaw joint for the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2, and two spare direct current switching units.[135]
108. STS-123
EVA 4
Michael Foreman
Robert L. Behnken
March 20, 2008
22:04
March 21, 2008
04:28
6 hours, 24 minutes
Replaced a Remote Power Control (RPC) module, and tested shuttle thermal tile repair materials and techniques. Removed a cover from the left arm of Dextre, and removed launch locks from the Harmony module. Released launch locks on Harmony’s port and nadir Common Berthing Mechanisms (CBM).[136]
109. STS-123
EVA 5
Michael Foreman
Robert L. Behnken
March 22, 2008
20:34
March 23, 2008
02:36
6 hours, 02 minutes
Stored the shuttle Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) onto the station, installed a materials experiment on the outside of the Columbus laboratory, and inspected the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ).[137]
110. STS-124
EVA 1
Michael E. Fossum
Ronald J. Garan
June 3, 2008
16:24
June 3, 2008
23:12
6 hours, 48 minutes
Released straps on the shuttle's robotic arm elbow joint camera, transferred the OBSS back to the shuttle. Prepared the Japanese Experiment Module, Pressurized Module (JEM-PM), named Kibo, for installation. Replaced a trundle bearing assembly on the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint, and inspected damage on the SARJ.[138][139]
111. STS-124
EVA 2
Michael E. Fossum
Ronald J. Garan
June 5, 2008
15:04
June 5, 2008
22:15
7 hours, 11 minutes
Installed covers and external equipment to Kibo, prepared for the relocation of the Japanese Experiment Logistics Module, Pressurized Section (ELM-PS). Prepared a nitrogen tank assembly for removal, and the new tank was stowed on an External Stowage Platform to prepare for installation. Removed a television camera with failed power supply.[140]
112. STS-124
EVA 3
Michael E. Fossum
Ronald J. Garan
June 8, 2008
13:55
June 8, 2008
20:28
6 hours, 33 minutes
Removed and replaced the starboard nitrogen tank assembly. Finished outfitting the Kibo laboratory. Reinstalled a television camera with a repaired power supply.[141]
113. Expedition 17
EVA 1
Sergei Volkov
Oleg Kononenko
July 10, 2008
18:48
July 11, 2008
1:06
6 hours 18 minutes
Inspected the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft, removed a pyrotechnic bolt from the Soyuz, installed a docking target for the new Russian MRM (Multipurpose Research Module) on the Service Module Transfer Compartment.[142][143]
114. Expedition 17
EVA 2
Sergei Volkov
Oleg Kononenko
July 15, 2008
17:08
July 15, 2008
23:02
5 hours 54 minutes
Installed a docking target on the Zvezda service module. Installed the Vsplesk experiment, straightened the ham radio antenna, and retrieved the Biorisk experiment.[144][145][146][147]
115. STS-126
EVA 1
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Stephen G. Bowen
November 18, 2008
18:09
November 19, 2008
01:01
6 hours, 52 minutes
Transferred an empty nitrogen tank assembly from ESP3 to the shuttle’s cargo bay, transferred a new flex hose rotary coupler to ESP3 for future use, removed an insulation cover on the Kibo External Facility berthing mechanism, began cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ, and replacement of its 11 trundle bearing assemblies.[148][149]
116. STS-126
EVA 2
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Robert S. Kimbrough
November 20, 2008
17:58
November 21, 2008
00:43
6 hours, 45 minutes
Relocated the two Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) carts from the starboard side of the Mobile Transporter to the port side, lubricated the station robotic arm’s latching end effector A snare bearings, continued cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ. EVA was conducted on the station's tenth year anniversary.[150][151][152]
117. STS-126
EVA 3
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Stephen G. Bowen
November 22, 2008
18:01
November 23, 2008
00:58
6 hours, 57 minutes
Completed cleaning and lubrication of all but one of the trundle bearing assemblies (TBA) on the starboard SARJ. The final TBA will be replaced during EVA 4.[153][154]
118. STS-126
EVA 4
Stephen G. Bowen
Robert S. Kimbrough
November 24, 2008
18:24
November 25, 2008
00:31
6 hours, 7 minutes
Completed replacement of trundle bearing assemblies on starboard SARJ, lubricated the port SARJ, installed a video camera, re‐installed insulation covers on the Kibo External Facility berthing mechanism, performed Kibo robotic arm grounding tab maintenance, installed spacewalk handrails on Kibo, installed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) antennae on Kibo, photographed radiators, and photographed trailing umbilical system cables.[16][155]
119. Expedition 18
EVA 1
Yuri Lonchakov
Michael Fincke
December 23, 2008
00:51
December 23, 2008
06:29
5 hours, 38 minutes
Installed the electromagnetic energy measuring device, (Langmuir probe) on Pirs, removed the Russian Biorisk long-duration experiment, installed the Expose-R experiment package on Zvezda, but subsequently removed it after it failed to activate and transmit telemetry on ground command. Installed the Impulse experiment, and photographed external ISS structures as part of the “Panorama-2008” detailed test objective (DTO).[17][156]

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